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PURPOSE We recently reported that anionic phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, become exposed on the external surface of viable vascular endothelial cells in tumors, possibly in response to oxidative stresses present in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a monoclonal antibody directed against anionic(More)
Anionic phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, become exposed on the external surface of viable vascular endothelial cells in tumors, providing an excellent marker for tumor vascular targeting. We recently raised an IgG monoclonal antibody, 3G4, which binds to anionic phospholipids in a beta2-glycoprotein I-dependent manner. It inhibited tumor(More)
A promising target on tumor vasculature is phosphatidylserine (PS), an anionic phospholipid that resides exclusively on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of resting mammalian cells. We have shown previously that PS becomes exposed on the surface of endothelial cells (EC) in solid tumors. To target PS on tumor vasculature, the murine monoclonal(More)
We generated a panel of eight rat IgG(2a) monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for mouse VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1), the main receptor that mediates the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. The antibodies (termed RAFL, R at Anti Flk) bound to dividing endothelial cells more strongly than they did to nondividing cells. Most of the RAFL antibodies blocked(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of tumor angiogenesis. We previously raised a neutralizing anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody 2C3 that blocks the interaction of VEGF with VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1) but not with VEGFR1 (FLT-1/flt-1). Here, we describe the therapeutic effects of 2C3 on tumor growth in an orthotopic model of MDA-MB-231(More)
Multiple tumor-derived factors are responsible for the accumulation and expansion of immune-suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in tumors. Here, we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with docetaxel in combination with the phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody 2aG4 potently suppressed the(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein that is largely restricted to prostatic epithelial cells in humans and is strongly upregulated on prostatic carcinoma cells. It is also expressed on the endothelium of tumor vasculature in humans, but not on the vasculature of normal tissues. Expression of low levels of PSMA has(More)
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an upstream immune checkpoint that drives global immunosuppression. Previous work has shown that PS targeting agents can override PS-driven immunosuppression and reprogram the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immunosupportive, break tumor immune tolerance, and elicit potent de novo antitumor T-cell immunity. In the(More)
Antibody-mediated blockade of phosphatidylserine enhances the anti-tumor activity of targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors by affecting myeloid and lymphocyte populations in the tumor microenvironment The underlying cause for the failure of immune checkpoint blockade is the overwhelming, persistent and multifo-cal immune suppression in the tumor(More)
In tumor-bearing animals, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) suppresses immune responses, suggesting that PS signaling could counteract the antitumor effect of antibody-driven immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we show that treating melanoma-bearing mice with a PS-targeting antibody enhances the antitumor activity of downstream checkpoint(More)