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A promising target on tumor vasculature is phosphatidylserine (PS), an anionic phospholipid that resides exclusively on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of resting mammalian cells. We have shown previously that PS becomes exposed on the surface of endothelial cells (EC) in solid tumors. To target PS on tumor vasculature, the murine monoclonal(More)
Selective occlusion of tumor vasculature was tested as a therapy for solid tumors in a mouse model. The formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within the tumor vessels was initiated by targeting the cell surface domain of human tissue factor, by means of a bispecific antibody, to an experimentally induced marker on tumor vascular endothelial cells. This(More)
Anionic phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, become exposed on the external surface of viable vascular endothelial cells in tumors, providing an excellent marker for tumor vascular targeting. We recently raised an IgG monoclonal antibody, 3G4, which binds to anionic phospholipids in a beta2-glycoprotein I-dependent manner. It inhibited tumor(More)
PURPOSE We recently reported that anionic phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, become exposed on the external surface of viable vascular endothelial cells in tumors, possibly in response to oxidative stresses present in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a monoclonal antibody directed against anionic(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of tumor angiogenesis. We previously raised a neutralizing anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody 2C3 that blocks the interaction of VEGF with VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1) but not with VEGFRI (FLT-1/flt-1). Here, we describe the therapeutic effects of 2C3 on tumor growth in an orthotopic model of MDA-MB-231(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic growth factor that is a primary stimulant of the vascularization of solid tumors. VEGF production is induced by oncogenic gene mutations in the tumor cells and by hypoxic conditions inside the tumor mass. Hypoxia and the locally increased concentration of VEGF lead to an up-regulation of VEGF(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein that is largely restricted to prostatic epithelial cells in humans and is strongly upregulated on prostatic carcinoma cells. It is also expressed on the endothelium of tumor vasculature in humans, but not on the vasculature of normal tissues. Expression of low levels of PSMA has(More)
Multiple tumor-derived factors are responsible for the accumulation and expansion of immune-suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in tumors. Here, we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with docetaxel in combination with the phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody 2aG4 potently suppressed the(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell specific mitogen that induces angiogenesis in several pathological conditions. To block angiogenesis, soluble VEGF receptor can be used. In this study, we describe a method for high yield expression of soluble VEGF receptor 2 (sFlk-1) in a baculovirus expression system (30 mg purified sFlk-1(More)
We generated a panel of eight rat IgG(2a) monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for mouse VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1), the main receptor that mediates the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. The antibodies (termed RAFL, R at Anti Flk) bound to dividing endothelial cells more strongly than they did to nondividing cells. Most of the RAFL antibodies blocked(More)