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Traditionally, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity has been characterized by ligand properties including affinity (Ki), potency (IC50/EC50), efficacy (Emax), and kinetics (Kon/Koff). These properties are related to ligand residence time, a general index of drug-target interaction in vivo. Recent GPCR structure-function breakthroughs have all required(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) involves the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) and increased plasma MIF levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with AS. Here, we have been suggested that MIF could be a critical contributor for the pathological process of diabetes-associated AS by using adenovirus-mediated RNA interference.(More)
Image classification is one of the important parts of digital image processing. We propose a novel feature space-based image classification method by combining manifold learning and mixture model. In this paper, the process of image classification can be viewed as two parts: a coarse-grained classification and a fine-grained classification. In the(More)
In this paper, we present a progressive image reconstruction scheme based on the semantically scalable multi-scale edge representation of images, with the resolution and visual quality scalable to various bitrate requirements. In the multi-scale edge representation an image is decomposed into its multi-scale primal sketch and the background where the(More)
The Smoothened receptor (SMO) belongs to the Class Frizzled of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, constituting a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure of the multi-domain human SMO, bound and stabilized by a designed tool ligand TC114, using an X-ray free-electron laser source at 2.9 Å. The(More)
Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (SMURF1), a recently identified E3 ubiquitin ligase, targets substrate proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Previous studies have reported that SMURF1 also functions as an oncogene in human cancers. However, the clinical value of SMURF1 and its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are(More)