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Role of Human β-Defensin-2 during Tumor Necrosis Factor-α/NF-κB-mediated Innate Antiviral Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus*
TLDR
HBD2 functions as an antiviral molecule during NF-κB-dependent innate antiviral immunity mediated by the autocrine/paracrine action of TNF, and shows that the antiviral mechanism of HBD2 involves blocking of viral cellular entry possibly because of destabilization/disintegration of the viral envelope.
Structural basis for antagonism of human interleukin 18 by poxvirus interleukin 18-binding protein
TLDR
The structure provides insights into how IL-18BPs modulate hIL-18 activity and the revealed binding interface provides the basis for rational design of inhibitors against orthopoxvirus IL- 18BP or hil-18 (for treating certain inflammatory and autoimmune diseases).
The in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against common human coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by targeting the heparan sulfate co-receptor
TLDR
LF has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple common human coronaviruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture, and bovine lactoferrin (BLF) is more potent than human lact oferrin, and Mechanistic studies revealed that BLF binds to HSPGs, thereby blocking viral attachment to the host cell.
Structure and inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease reveal strategy for developing dual inhibitors against Mpro and cathepsin L
TLDR
The structure of Mpro with calpain inhibitor II confirmed that the S1 pocket can accommodate a hydrophobic methionine side chain, challenging the idea that a Hydrophilic residue is necessary at this position.
C7L Family of Poxvirus Host Range Genes Inhibits Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1
TLDR
The data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C 7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells.
Vaccinia Virus K1L and C7L Inhibit Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons
TLDR
It is shown that K1L and C7L can also inhibit antiviral effectors induced by type I IFN, suggesting that K 1L supports VACV replication in mammalian cells by antagonizing the same antiviral factor that is induced by IFN in Huh7 cells.
Structure and inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease reveals strategy for developing dual inhibitors against Mpro and cathepsin L
TLDR
The X-ray crystal structures of Mpro in complex with calpain inhibitors II and XII, and three analogues of GC-376, one of the most potent Mpro inhibitors in vitro provide new directions for the development of M Pro inhibitors as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.
Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Vaccinia Virus Envelope Protein D8 and Its Recognition by the Antibody LA5
TLDR
The biochemical and structural characterization of one of the immunodominant vaccinia virus (VACV) antigens, D8, and its binding to the monoclonal antibody LA5, which is capable of neutralizing VACV in the presence of complement is described.
Linear Epitopes in Vaccinia Virus A27 Are Targets of Protective Antibodies Induced by Vaccination against Smallpox
TLDR
Analysis of the antibody-antigen interaction supports a model in which antibodies that can interfere with the functional activity of the antigen are more likely to confer protection than those that bind at the extremities of the antigens.
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