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STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor that mediates cytokine production in response to microbial invasion by directly sensing bacterial secondary messengers such as the cyclic dinucleotide bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). STING's structure and its binding mechanism to cyclic dinucleotides were unknown. We report(More)
FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effector proteins form a critical signaling pathway that regulates eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation. Although the protein components in this pathway have begun to be identified, little is known about their subcellular localization or the physiological(More)
To investigate the effects of calorie restriction (CR) on behavioral performance and expression of SIRT1 and SIRT5 in rat cerebral tissues. Beginning at 18 months of age, 60 rats were randomly divided into a CR group (n = 30) and a group that remained fed ad libitum (AL; n = 30). CR rats were restricted to a diet of 60% of their daily food consumption.(More)
Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) between birds and humans is an ongoing threat that holds potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza strain. A major barrier to an effective vaccine against avian influenza has been the generally poor immunopotency of many of the HPAI strains coupled with the manufacturing constraints(More)
RATIONALE Macrophage cholesterol homeostasis maintenance is the result of a balance between influx, endogenous synthesis, esterification/hydrolysis and efflux. Excessive accumulation of cholesterol leads to foam cell formation, which is the major pathology of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that miR-27 (miR-27a and miR-27b) may play a key role(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen fused to flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium fljB (STF2, a TLR5 ligand) elicits protective immunity to H1N1 and H5N1 lethal influenza infections in mice (Song et al., 2008, PLoS ONE 3, e2257; Song et al., 2009, Vaccine 27, 5875-5888). These fusion proteins can be(More)
AIM To investigate the correlation between gastric cancer growth and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) expression. METHODS We assessed the expressions of STAT3, phosphor-STAT3 (pSTAT3), suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), survivin and Bcl-2 in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy by immunohistochemical method. In(More)
Malignant tumors are often accompanied by increased risk of hematological abnormalities. However, few studies have reported any prognostic impact of preoperative thrombocytosis, leukocytosis and anemia in epithelia ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to investigate preoperative hematological parameters for anemia, leukocytosis and thombocytosis in(More)
The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to examine the changes of the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following subcutaneous bee venom (BV) injection into the plantar surface of the unilateral hindpaw. In the DRG ipsilateral to the BV injection,(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that play central roles in cell growth and functions. Only mTORC1 is directly inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin. Despite recent progress in identifying new components and functions of the mTOR pathway, relatively little is known about the spatial arrangement of mTOR(More)