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TRPV1 plays a key role in nociception, as it is activated by heat, low pH, and ligands such as capsaicin, leading to a burning pain sensation. We describe the structure of the cytosolic ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of TRPV1 and identify a multiligand-binding site important in regulating channel sensitivity within the TRPV1-ARD. The structure reveals a(More)
The TRPV ion channels mediate responses to many sensory stimuli including heat, low pH, neuropeptides, and chemical ligands. All TRPV subfamily members contain an intracellular N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD), a prevalent protein interaction motif. The 1.6-A crystal structure of the TRPV2-ARD, with six ankyrin repeats, reveals several atypical(More)
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic(More)
Specific interactions between proteins and DNA are fundamental to many biological processes. In this review, we provide a revised view of protein-DNA interactions that emphasizes the importance of the three-dimensional structures of both macromolecules. We divide protein-DNA interactions into two categories: those when the protein recognizes the unique(More)
Crystal structures of classical cadherins have revealed two dimeric configurations. In the first, N-terminal β-strands of EC1 domains 'swap' between partner molecules. The second configuration (the 'X dimer'), also observed for T-cadherin, is mediated by residues near the EC1-EC2 calcium binding sites, and N-terminal β-strands of partner EC1 domains, though(More)
The TrkH/TrkG/KtrB proteins mediate K(+) uptake in bacteria and probably evolved from simple K(+) channels by multiple gene duplications or fusions. Here we present the crystal structure of a TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TrkH is a homodimer, and each protomer contains an ion permeation pathway. A selectivity filter, similar in architecture to those of(More)
Adherens junctions, which play a central role in intercellular adhesion, comprise clusters of type I classical cadherins that bind via extracellular domains extended from opposing cell surfaces. We show that a molecular layer seen in crystal structures of E- and N-cadherin ectodomains reported here and in a previous C-cadherin structure corresponds to the(More)
TrkH belongs to a superfamily of K(+) transport proteins required for growth of bacteria in low external K(+) concentrations. The crystal structure of TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus showed that TrkH resembles a K(+) channel and may have a gating mechanism substantially different from K(+) channels. TrkH assembles with TrkA, a cytosolic protein comprising(More)
Nectins are immunoglobulin superfamily glycoproteins that mediate intercellular adhesion in many vertebrate tissues. Homophilic and heterophilic interactions between nectin family members help mediate tissue patterning. We determined the homophilic binding affinities and heterophilic specificities of all four nectins and the related protein nectin-like 5(More)
Vertebrate genomes encode 19 classical cadherins and about 100 nonclassical cadherins. Adhesion by classical cadherins depends on binding interactions in their N-terminal EC1 domains, which swap N-terminal β-strands between partner molecules from apposing cells. However, strand-swapping sequence signatures are absent from nonclassical cadherins, raising the(More)