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Though mutation testing has been widely studied for more than thirty years, the prevalence and properties of equivalent mutants remain largely unknown. We report on the causes and prevalence of equivalent mutants and their relationship to stubborn mutants (those that remain undetected by a high quality test suite, yet are non-equivalent). Our results, based(More)
Let G be an undirected graph, A be an (additive) abelian group and A * = A − {0}. A graph G is A-connected if G has an orientation D(G) such that for every function b : V (G) → A satisfying v∈V (G) b(v) = 0, there is a function f : E(G) → A * such that at each vertex v ∈ V (G), the amount of f values on the edges directed out from v minus the amount of f(More)
The application of genetic algorithms in automatically generating test data has become a research hotspot and produced many results in recent years. However, its applicability is limited in the presence of flag variables. This issue, known as the flag problem, has been studied by many researchers to date. We propose a novel method of testability(More)
Let G be an undirected graph, A be an (additive) abelian group and A * = A − {0}. A graph G is A-connected if G has an orientation D(G) such that for every function b : V (G) → A satisfying v∈V (G) b(v) = 0, there is a function f : E(G) → A * such that e∈E + (v) f (e) − e∈E − (v) f (e) = b(v). For an abelian group A, let A be the family of graphs that are(More)