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Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we aimed to determine the causal ordering between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. Results of structural equation modelling showed that, across the entire junior and senior high school, prior low mathematics achievement significantly related to later high mathematics anxiety,(More)
The 1990 national census revealed that the population growth of Liaoning Province in China had been under control since the 1970s with a birth rate of 16.30/1000, a mortality rate of 6.59/1000, and a low rate of natural increase: 9.71/1000 in 1990. The total fertility rate (TFR) of women in 1989 was 1.50, much lower than the national average of 2.25. TFR(More)
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