Xiangcai Ruan

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Hemorrhagic shock due to trauma (HS/T) induces an inflammatory response that can contribute to end-organ injury. The pathways involved in the initiation and propagation of HS/T-induced inflammation are incompletely understood. Here, we hypothesized that the DNA sensor TLR9 would have a role in inflammatory signaling after HS/T. Using mice expressing a(More)
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine-induced bradycardia or hypotension has recently attracted considerable attention because of potentially grave consequences, including sinus arrest and refractory cardiogenic shock. A route other than intravenous injection or a low dose may help minimize cardiovascular risks associated with dexmedetomidine. However, few studies(More)
Inhibition of p-glycoprotein under hyperglycemic conditions has been reported in various barrier tissues including blood-brain barrier, intestine, and kidney, and has been linked to significant clinical complications. However, whether this is also true for the outer blood-retinal barrier constituted by retinal pigment epithelium, or has a role in(More)
PURPOSE To investigate whether dexamethasone has an effect on functional expression of p-glycoprotein in cultured human RPE and, if so, whether this occurs through interaction with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR). METHODS The human RPE D407 was treated with increasing concentrations of dexamethasone and/or RU486 for various time(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of peroral encapsulated Bifidobacteria on intestinal microflora, bacterial translocation (BT), plasma endotoxin, and ileal villi injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were fed daily with three different diet supplements: phosphate buffered saline,(More)
Trauma results in a persistent depression in adaptive immunity, which contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. This state of immune paralysis following trauma is characterized by a change in cell-mediated immunity, specifically a depression in T-cell function and a shift toward TH2 T-cell phenotype. Upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect endogenous ligands released after trauma and contribute to the proinflammatory response to injury. Posttraumatic mortality correlates with the extent of the immunoinflammatory response to injury that is composed of a complex regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Although TLRs are known to modulate(More)
BACKGROUND Intranasal dexmedetomidine, a well-tolerated and convenient treatment option, has been shown to induce a favorable perioperative anxiolysis in children. We investigate intranasal dexmedetomidine as a sedative premedication for anesthesia recovery in an adult population. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial; 81 adult patients(More)
Although tissue-derived high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in many aspects of inflammation and tissue injury after trauma, its role in trauma-induced immune suppression remains elusive. Using an established mouse model of peripheral tissue trauma, which includes soft tissue and fracture components, we report here that treatment with anti-HMGB1(More)
The developing brains of pediatric patients are highly vulnerable to anesthetic regimen (e.g., lidocaine), potentially causing neurological impairment. Recently, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used as an adjunct for sedation, and was shown to exert dose-dependent neuroprotective effects during brain injury. However, the maximum safe dose of DEX is unclear,(More)