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There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide, but how to define vitamin D deficiency is controversial. Currently, the plasma concentration of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered an indicator of vitamin D status. The free hormone hypothesis states that protein-bound hormones are inactive while unbound hormones are free to exert(More)
AIM To analyze the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) related symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to find out the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and the prevalence of GERD symptoms. METHODS In this prospective questionnaire study, 150 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients attending the endocrine clinic were(More)
BACKGROUND Weight loss (WL) negatively affects bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations and has specifically been shown in women. OBJECTIVE In this prospective controlled trial, we examined variables of bone quality and endocrine changes after intentional WL in men. DESIGN Thirty-eight overweight and obese [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m²):(More)
BACKGROUND Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that vitamin D could prevent pancreatic beta-cell destruction and reduce the incidence of autoimmune diabetes. In children with type 1 diabetes, vitamin D treatment produces moderate protective effects on residual beta-cell function and has proven to be safe. Therefore, we hypothesized that(More)
CONTEXT Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been widely used in type 2 diabetes. An important unanswered question concerns the effect of DPP-4 inhibition on β-cell function in patients with autoimmune diabetes. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor on β-cell function in patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the relationship between GAD autoantibody (GADA) titers and changing of β-cell function in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 3-year prospective study enrolled 95 subjects from 15 Chinese cities including 25 high-titer (GADA ≥180 units/mL) LADA patients, 42(More)
The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine(More)
Calcium signaling is one of the most extensively employed signal transduction mechanisms in life. As life evolved into increasingly complex organisms, Ca(2+) acquired more extensive and varied functions. Here, we compare genes encoding proteins that govern Ca(2+) entry and exit across cells or organelles within organisms of early eukaryotic evolution into(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between endogenous serum estradiol and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS In 165 healthy women (ages, 26 to 75 years) not taking any form of exogenous estrogen, the serum concentrations of estradiol,(More)