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Linear mixed models have attracted considerable attention recently as a powerful and effective tool for accounting for population stratification and relatedness in genetic association tests. However, existing methods for exact computation of standard test statistics are computationally impractical for even moderate-sized genome-wide association studies. To(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in development and stress responses in most eukaryotes. We globally profiled plant miRNAs in response to infection of bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). We sequenced 13 small-RNA libraries constructed from Arabidopsis at 6 and 14 h post infection of non-pathogenic, virulent and(More)
Both linear mixed models (LMMs) and sparse regression models are widely used in genetics applications, including, recently, polygenic modeling in genome-wide association studies. These two approaches make very different assumptions, so are expected to perform well in different situations. However, in practice, for a given dataset one typically does not know(More)
Multivariate linear mixed models (mvLMMs) are powerful tools for testing associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and multiple correlated phenotypes while controlling for population stratification in genome-wide association studies. We present efficient algorithms in the genome-wide efficient mixed model association (GEMMA) software for fitting(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY39, a transcription factor that is induced by heat stress, is a member of the group II WRKY proteins and responds to both abiotic and biotic stress. Heat-treated seeds and plants of WRKY39 knock-down mutants had increased susceptibility to heat stress, showing reduced germination, decreased survival, and elevated electrolyte leakage(More)
Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a(More)
Enhancers instruct spatio-temporally specific gene expression in a manner tightly linked to higher-order chromatin architecture. Critical chromatin architectural regulators condensin I and condensin II play non-redundant roles controlling mitotic chromosomes. But the chromosomal locations of condensins and their functional roles in interphase are poorly(More)
We report here the identification and characterization of a protein, ERIS, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) IFN stimulator, which is a strong type I IFN stimulator and plays a pivotal role in response to both non-self-cytosolic RNA and dsDNA. ERIS (also known as STING or MITA) resided exclusively on ER membrane. The ER retention/retrieval sequence RIR was(More)
Arabidopsis WRKY proteins are plant-specific transcription factors, encoded by a large gene family, which contain the highly conserved amino acid sequence WRKYGQK and the zinc-finger-like motifs, Cys(2)His(2) or Cys(2)HisCys. They can recognize and bind the TTGAC(C/T) W-box ciselements found in the promoters of target genes, and are involved in the(More)
BACKGROUND Whether additional benefit can be achieved with the use of trimetazidine (TMZ) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effects of TMZ treatment in CHF patients. METHODS We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases(More)