Xiang Yang Liu

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Spider dragline silk is of practical interest because of its excellent mechanical properties. However, the structure of this material is still largely unknown. In this article, we report what we believe is a new model of the hierarchical structure of silk based on scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images. This hierarchical structure(More)
Protein interactions in undersaturated and supersaturated solutions were investigated using static and dynamic light scattering and small angle x-ray scattering. A morphodrom of lysozyme crystals determined at 35 degrees C and pH = 4.6 was used as a guideline in selecting the protein and precipitant concentrations. The osmotic second virial coefficient,(More)
Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is dependent on maturation and acidification of the secretory granule, processes necessary for prohormone convertase cleavage of proinsulin. Previous studies in isolated beta cells revealed that acidification may be dependent on the granule membrane chloride channel ClC-3, in a step permissive for a regulated(More)
The nucleation of crystalline materials is a hotly debated subject in the physical sciences. Despite the emergence of several theories in recent decades, much confusion still surrounds the dynamic processes of nucleation. This has been due in part to the limitations of existing experimental evidence. Charged colloidal suspensions have been used as(More)
The crystal growth process by which fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) modify the ice morphology is analyzed in the AFP-ice system. A newly identified AFP-induced surface reconstruction mechanism enables one-dimensional helical and irregular globular ice binding surfaces to stabilize secondary, kinetically less stable ice(More)
The antifreeze protein (AFP) reduces the growth rates of the ice crystal facets. In that process the ice morphology undergoes a modification. An AFP-induced surface pinning mechanism, through matching of periodic bond chains in two dimensions, enables two-dimensional regular ice-binding surfaces (IBSs) of the insect AFPs to engage a certain class of ice(More)
The fluorescence of lima bean trypsin inhibitor is due to a single tyrosine residue at position 69. The lifetime of this tyrosine fluorescence is 620 +/- 50 ps (mean +/- SD) and is little affected by addition of 0.88 M citrate, an efficient quencher of tyrosine fluorescence. The steady-state emission intensity is also only weakly reduced by the quencher.(More)
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