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The acetylation of histones increases the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to transcription factors [1,2], relieving transcriptional repression [3] and correlating with the potential for transcriptional activity in vivo [4 - 7]. The characterization of several novel histone acetyltransferases - including the human GCN5 homolog PCAF (p300/CBP-associated(More)
PCAF histone acetylase plays a role in regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Here, we show that PCAF is found in a complex consisting of more than 20 distinct polypeptides. Strikingly, some polypeptides are identical to TBP-associated factors (TAFs), which are subunits of TFIID. Like TFIID, histone fold-containing factors(More)
Acetylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues, or N(epsilon)-lysine acetylation, is an important post-translational modification known to occur in histones, transcription factors and other proteins. Since 1995, dozens of proteins have been discovered to possess intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. Although most of these enzymes were(More)
The transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex composed of TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and many TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s). TAF(II)s are important cofactors that mediate activated transcription by providing interaction sites for distinct activators. Here, we present evidence that human TAF(II)250 and its homologs in(More)
Microtubules have important functions ranging from maintenance of cell morphology to subcellular transport, cellular signaling, cell migration, and formation of cell polarity. At the organismal level, microtubules are crucial for various biological processes, such as viral entry, inflammation, immunity, learning and memory in mammals. Microtubules are(More)
Muscle activity contributes to formation of the neuromuscular junction and affects muscle metabolism and contractile properties through regulated gene expression. However, the mechanisms coordinating these diverse activity-regulated processes remain poorly characterized. Recently, it was reported that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) can mediate(More)
As a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) discovered decades ago, protein lysine acetylation was known for its regulation of transcription through the modification of histones. Recent studies discovered that lysine acetylation targets broad substrates and especially plays an essential role in cellular metabolic regulation. Although acetylation(More)
In this report, we identify myogenin as an important transcriptional target under the control of three intracellular signaling pathways, namely, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase- (MAPK), calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase- (CaMK), and calcineurin-mediated pathways, during skeletal muscle differentiation. Three cis-elements (i.e., the E box,(More)
Histone acetylation is important for regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Three classes of mammalian histone deacetylases have been identified. Among class II, there are five known members, namely HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7 and HDAC9. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel class II member termed HDAC10. It is a(More)