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—This paper studies an important problem in the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF)-based wireless local area network (WLAN): how well can the network support quality of service (QoS). Specifically, this paper analyzes the network's performance in terms of maximum protocol capacity or throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. Although the(More)
The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal that triggers host immune responses such as the production of type I interferons. Cytosolic DNA induces interferons through the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP), which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING.(More)
Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine(More)
Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating(More)
Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) is a devastating disease with a less than 20% survival rate 2 years after diagnosis. We analyzed 127 pediatric HGGs, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and non-brainstem HGGs (NBS-HGGs), by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. We identified recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1(More)
The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was(More)
RIG-I detects invading viral RNA and activates the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3 through the mitochondrial protein MAVS. Here we show that RNA bearing 5'-triphosphate strongly activates the RIG-I-IRF3 signaling cascade in a reconstituted system composed of RIG-I, mitochondria, and cytosol. Activation of RIG-I requires not only RNA but also(More)
Proteasomal receptors that recognize ubiquitin chains attached to substrates are key mediators of selective protein degradation in eukaryotes. Here we report the identification of a new ubiquitin receptor, Rpn13/ARM1, a known component of the proteasome. Rpn13 binds ubiquitin through a conserved amino-terminal region termed the pleckstrin-like receptor for(More)
Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas.(More)
— In the emerging IEEE 802.11e MAC protocol, the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) is proposed to support prioritized QoS; however, it cannot guarantee strict QoS required by real-time services such as voice and video without proper network control mechanisms. To overcome this deficiency, we first build an analytical model to derive an average(More)