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We present a novel web page fingerprinting attack that is able to defeat several recently proposed defenses against traffic analysis attacks, including the application-level defenses HTTPOS and randomized pipelining over Tor. Regardless of the defense scheme, our attack was able to guess which of 100 web pages a victim was visiting at least 50% of the time(More)
Website fingerprinting attacks allow a local, passive eavesdropper to identify a user's web activity by lever-aging packet sequence information. These attacks break the privacy expected by users of privacy technologies, including low-latency anonymity networks such as Tor. In this paper, we show a new attack that achieves significantly higher accuracy than(More)
Using a database of more than 1.85 million retail investor transactions over 1991– 1996, we show that these trades are systematically correlated—that is, individuals buy (or sell) stocks in concert. Moreover, consistent with noise trader models, we find that systematic retail trading explains return comovements for stocks with high retail concentration(More)
We defeat two proposed Unix file-system race condition defense mechanisms. First, we attack the proba-bilistic defense mechanism of Tsafrir, et al., published at USENIX FAST 2008[26]. We then show that the same attack breaks the kernel-based dynamic race detector of Tsyrklevich and Yee, published at USENIX Security 2003[28]. We then argue that all(More)
Website fingerprinting attacks enable an adversary to infer which website a victim is visiting, even if the victim uses an encrypting proxy, such as Tor. Previous work has shown that all proposed defenses against website fingerprinting attacks are ineffective. This paper advances the study of website fingerprinting defenses by first laying out the complete(More)
Fingerprinting attacks have emerged as a serious threat against privacy mechanisms, such as SSL, Tor, and encrypting tunnels. Researchers have proposed numerous attacks and defenses, and the Tor project now includes both network- and browser-level defenses against these attacks, but published defenses have high overhead, poor security, or both. This paper(More)
This study shows that individual investors systematically shift their preferences across extreme style portfolios (small vs. large, value vs. growth). These preference shifts are influenced by past style returns and earnings differentials, and advice from investment newsletters, but are unaffected by innovations in macroeconomic variables or shifts in(More)
A graphene oxide (GO) solution was irradiated by a Xenon lamp to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO). After irradiation, the epoxy, the carbonyl and the hydroxy groups are gradually removed from GO, resulting in an increase of sp(2) π-conjugated domains and defect carbons with holes for the formed RGO. The RGO conductivity increases due to the restoration of(More)