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Seed traits play an important role in seed dispersal and possibly in eventual plant community structure and dynamics. Though seed traits have been shown to influence seed dispersal of one given tree species, it is not clear if and how seed dispersal and seed survival of one tree species are affected by neighboring tree species at inter-specific level. In(More)
Partial consumption of acorns by rodents, birds, and insects has been widely reported in various oak species. However, to what extent these partially eaten acorns contribute to the regeneration of oak trees is poorly understood. To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects of seed availability on partial consumption of acorns. Herein, we released(More)
Early germination of white oaks is widely viewed as an evolutionary strategy to escape rodent predation; yet, the mechanism by which this is accomplished is poorly understood. We report that chestnut oak Quercus montana (CO) and white oak Q. alba (WO) (from North America), and oriental cork oak Q. variabilis (OO) and Mongolian oak Q. mongolica (MO) (from(More)
Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function(More)
Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak(More)
Many rodents hoard seeds as a means of ensuring food availability during scarcity. Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) feed on acorns of white oak Quercus mongolica and hoard them for future use. Such caches may deteriorate due to the early germination of the acorns in autumn, which can be inhibited by radicle pruning or embryo excision. Siberian(More)
Oaks produce acorns containing a large amount of reserves in their cotyledons, which are important for the early development of seedlings. However, it remains unclear at what level oak seedlings will rely on cotyledonary reserves under different soil nutrition levels. We carried out an indoor experiment to quantify seedling growth, mobilization of(More)
The nutritious acorns produced by oak trees (Quercus spp.) are attacked frequently by insects that feed on seed reserves. However, previous studies have partly considered the effects of insect infestations on animal seed dispersal and subsequent plant regeneration. In this study, we tested whether the effects of insect infestations on seed dispersal were(More)
Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of(More)
The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the(More)