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In diverse eukaryotic organisms, Dicer-processed, virus-derived small interfering RNAs direct antiviral immunity by RNA silencing or RNA interference. Here we show that in addition to core dicing and slicing components of RNAi, the RNAi-mediated viral immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana requires host RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RDR) 1 or RDR6 to produce viral(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana defense against distinct positive-strand RNA viruses requires production of virus-derived secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by multiple RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, little is known about the biogenesis pathway and effector mechanism of viral secondary siRNAs. Here, we describe a mutant of Cucumber mosaic virus(More)
Barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, causes serious crop losses in agriculture. Here, we have cloned the BYSMV-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), assembled the siRNAs and used RT-PCR to reconstruct the BYSMV genome. The genome consists of 12,706 nucleotides and encodes ten predicted genes from the(More)
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b suppresses RNA silencing primarily through the binding of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of varying sizes. However, the biologically active form of 2b remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the single and double alanine substitution mutants in the N-terminal 15th leucine and 18th methionine of CMV 2b exhibit drastically(More)
Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the infectious agent of sugar beet rhizomania, which consists of four or five plus-sense RNAs. RNA4 of BNYVV is not essential for virus propagation in Nicotiana benthamiana but has a major effect on symptom expression. Early reports showed that RNA4-encoded P31 was associated with severe symptoms, such as curling(More)
The impact of income and education level on the clinical and pathologic characteristics, implementation of clinical breast examination (CBE), and treatment patterns of a small population of Chinese female breast cancer patients was studied in order to provide a theoretical basis and statistical reference for further nationwide research. We included 484(More)
BACKGROUND Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein virus (BNYVV) is a member of the genus Benyvirus causing a worldwide sugar beet disease rhizomania. BNYVV contains four or five plus-sense single stranded RNAs. In altered selective conditions, multipartite RNA viruses of plant are prone to undergoing internal deletions, thus turning into Defective RNAs (D RNAs).(More)
Some plant and animal pathogens can manipulate their hosts to cause them to release odors that are attractive to the pathogens' arthropod vectors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unexplored, and the specific effectors the pathogens employ as well as the pathways within the hosts they target are currently unknown. Here we(More)
Co-infection of none-coding satellite RNAs (sat-RNAs) usually inhibits replication and attenuates disease symptoms of helper viruses. However, we find that the sat-RNA of Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) and low temperature (18°C) additively enhance the systemic infection of BBSV in Nicotiana benthamiana. Northern blotting hybridization revealed a relatively(More)
As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA), jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating(More)