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The minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM) complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. Whereas the eukaryotic complex consists of 6 homologous proteins (MCM2-7), the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only 1 MCM protein (ssoMCM), 6 subunits of which form a homohexamer. Here, we report a 4.35-A crystal(More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by T lymphocyte subsets. Recently, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells have been described as two distinct subsets from Th1 and Th2 cells and have the opposite effects on autoimmunity. Th17/Treg balance controls inflammation and may be important in the pathogenesis of plaque(More)
MicroRNA (miR)-155 is a critical player in both innate and adaptive immune responses. It can influence CD4(+) T cell lineage choice. To clarify the role of miR-155 in CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg)/T helper (Th)17 cell differentiation and function, as well as the mechanism involved, we performed gain-and loss-of-function analysis by transfection(More)
In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are involved in the immunomodulatory effects of statins on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The 12-week study cohort consisted of 55 RA patients and 42 control subjects allocated to either a group treated with atorvastatin (AT) (20 mg/day) or a non-AT group. T(reg) numbers,(More)
Excessive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression is increasingly thought to be detrimental to cardiomyocytes in acute myocardial infarction. During myocardial ischemia, TNF-α is mainly released from macrophages, but with persistent ischemia, it can originate from cardiomyocytes and contribute to cardiac remodeling. The initiating factor and exact(More)
Recent studies have indicated a protective role of physiological autophagy in ischemic heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of autophagy regulation after ischemia are poorly understood. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released from cells that play critical roles in mediating cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of microRNAs. In this(More)
AIM Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an important and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation may be associated with Hhcy-induced endothelial dysfunction, which is an important mechanism for Hhcy to affect atherosclerotic progress. Thus, we investigated whether PARP inhibitors(More)
Anti-adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) autoantibodies are related to the development of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-triggered acute viral myocarditis (AVMC). Recently, studies suggested that IL-17 especially produced by a novel CD4(+) Th-cell subset Th17 cells contributed to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies in some autoimmune diseases. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by T lymphocyte subsets. Recently, CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells have been described as two distinct subsets and have the opposite effects on autoimmunity. Clinical observation has revealed that the Th17/Treg imbalance exists in patients with acute(More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is positively and negatively regulated by T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 lymphocytes, respectively. Recent findings indicate that suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) expressing TTAGGG motifs selectively reduce Th1 cytokine production and have been proven effective at blocking the development of(More)