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The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and contains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one-third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the(More)
We tested the hypothesis that the neurotransmitter glutamate would influence glial proliferation and differentiation in a cytoarchitecturally intact system. Postnatal day 6 cerebellar slices were maintained in organotypic culture and treated with glutamate receptor agonists or antagonists. After dissociation, cells were stained with antibodies for different(More)
Seismic data from central Tibet have been combined to image the subsurface structure and understand the evolution of the collision of India and Eurasia. The 410- and 660-kilometer mantle discontinuities are sharply defined, implying a lack of a subducting slab beneath the plateau. The discontinuities appear slightly deeper beneath northern Tibet, implying(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical diagnosis of ALS is based entirely on clinical features. Identification of biomarkers for ALS would be important for diagnosis and might also provide clues to pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To determine if there is a specific protein profile in the CSF that distinguishes patients with ALS from those with purely motor peripheral neuropathy(More)
Controlled lysosomal rupture was initiated in lysosome-rich, macrophage-like cells by the synthetic lysosomotropic detergent, O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH). When MSDH was applied at low concentrations, resulting in partial lysosomal rupture, activation of pro-caspase-3-like proteases and apoptosis followed after some hours. Early during(More)
Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils(More)
The isolation and identification of the 87A strain of epidemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) by means of cell culturing have been described previously. This paper reports the successful isolation of a sporadic HEV strain (G93-2) in human lung carcinoma cell (A549) cultures. The etiology, molecular and biological properties, and serological relationship of this(More)
We examined the pathways that link neurotransmitter receptor activation and cell cycle arrest in oligodendrocyte progenitors. We had previously demonstrated that glutamate receptor activation inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation and lineage progression. Here, using purified oligodendrocyte progenitors and cerebellar slice cultures, we show that(More)
Background:Cancerous stem-like cells (CSCs) have been implicated as cancer-initiating cells in a range of malignant tumours. Diverse genetic programs regulate CSC behaviours, and CSCs from glioblastoma patients are qualitatively distinct from each other. The intrinsic connection between the presence of CSCs and malignancy is unclear. We set out to test(More)
Sustained hyperleptinemia of 8 ng/ml was induced for 28 days in normal Wistar rats by infusing a recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA (AdCMV-leptin). Hyperleptinemic rats exhibited a 30-50% reduction in food intake and gained only 22 g over the experimental period versus 115-132 g in control animals that received saline infusions or a(More)