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Stress fibers are contractile bundles in the cytoskeleton that stabilize cell structure by exerting traction forces on the extracellular matrix. Individual stress fibers are molecular bundles composed of parallel actin and myosin filaments linked by various actin-binding proteins, which are organized end-on-end in a sarcomere-like pattern within an(More)
Cancer occurs when cells acquire genomic instability and inflammation, produce abnormal levels of epigenetic factors/proteins and tumor suppressors, reprogram the energy metabolism and evade immune destruction, leading to the disruption of cell cycle/normal growth. An early event in carcinogenesis is loss of polarity and detachment from the natural basement(More)
Cancer cells cultured in physiologically relevant, three-dimensional (3D) matrices can recapture many essential features of native tumor tissues. In this study, a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based bilayer hydrogel system that not only supports the tumoroid formation from LNCaP prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but also simulates their reciprocal interactions with the(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineered tumor models have the potential to bridge the gap between monolayer cultures and patient-derived xenografts for the testing of nanoparticle (NP)-based cancer therapeutics. In this study, a hydrogel-derived prostate cancer (PCa) model was developed for the in vitro evaluation of doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded polymer NPs(More)
To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence(More)
Amphiphilic block co-polymers consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) and hydrophobic polyester bearing pendent cyclic ketals were synthesized by ring-opening co-polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4,6]-9-undecanone (TSU) using α-hydroxyl, ω-methoxy, poly(ethylene glycol) as the initiator and stannous octoate as the(More)
A new family of Nyquist pulses for coherent optical single carrier systems is introduced and is shown to increase the nonlinearity tolerance of dual-polarization (DP)-QPSK and DP-16-QAM systems. Numerical investigations for a single-channel 28 Gbaud DP-16-QAM long-haul system without optical dispersion compensation indicate that the proposed pulse can(More)
Robust PMD tolerance and fast pre-convergence speed of decision directed least radius distance algorithm is demonstrated via a 224Gb/s dual-polarization 16-QAM system simulation. 1. Introduction Polarization division multiplexed (PDM) multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) provides a spectrally efficient solution for optical transmission systems(More)
We experimentally demonstrate the impact of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) on the performance of 56 Gbaud dual-polarization (DP) QPSK long haul transmission systems. Although EEPN adds additional noise to the received symbols, we show that this reduces the phase variance introduced by the LO laser, and therefore should be considered when designing(More)