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Brownian motion is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature. Its conceptual implications have a profound impact in almost every field of science and even economics, from dissipative processes in thermodynamic systems, gene therapy in biomedical research, artificial motors and galaxy formation to the behaviour of stock prices. However, despite(More)
The ultimate frontier in nanomaterials engineering is to realize their composition control with atomic scale precision to enable fabrication of nanoparticles with desirable size, shape and surface properties. Such control becomes even more useful when growing hybrid nanocrystals designed to integrate multiple functionalities. Here we report achieving such(More)
Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over(More)
The synthesis of lanthanide-activated phosphors is pertinent to many emerging applications, ranging from high-resolution luminescence imaging to next-generation volumetric full-color display. In particular, the optical processes governed by the 4f-5d transitions of divalent and trivalent lanthanides have been the key to enabling precisely tuned color(More)
We report the synthesis and characterization of cubic NaGdF4:Yb/Tm@NaGdF4:Mn core-shell structures. By taking advantage of energy transfer through Yb→Tm→Gd→Mn in these core-shell nanoparticles, we have realized upconversion emission of Mn(2+) at room temperature in lanthanide tetrafluoride based host lattices. The upconverted Mn(2+) emission, enabled by(More)
Interposers that support high input/output density are becoming critical for system miniaturization and high performance. Silicon and glass are emerging as the primary candidates for such high-density interposers, due to their outstanding dimensional stability, which enables layer-to-layer wiring with small vias. However, silicon and glass have very low(More)
This paper reports compliant microwire copper arrays, in thin polymer carriers, as an innovative approach for direct surface mount technology (SMT) attach of large silicon, glass, and low coefficient of thermal expansion organic interposers to printed wiring boards (PWBs). The microwire arrays (MWAs) are prefabricated as free-standing ultrathin carriers(More)
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in feeds. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, then cleaned up by multifunctional purification column filler and PRIME HLB solid phase extraction column. The 11 mycotoxins were separated on an(More)