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At nondepressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, serotonin (5-HT) facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase A pathway. In contrast, at depressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, 5-HT facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. It is known that only two phorbol ester-activated PKC(More)
The Aplysia nervous system contains two phorbol ester-activated protein kinase C isoforms, the Ca(2+)-activated Apl I and the Ca(2+)-independent Apl II. Short-term applications of the facilitatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) activates Apl I, but not Apl II. In contrast, Apl II, but not Apl I, can form an autonomous kinase. To investigate the biochemical(More)
Chronic alcohol abuse impairs both alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, and renders individuals susceptible to acute lung injury, pneumonia, and other serious lung diseases. Zinc deficiency, which is known to impact both epithelial and immune cell functions, is also associated with alcohol abuse. In this study, chronic alcohol ingestion (6 wk) in(More)
In the nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia there are two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, the Ca2+-activated PKC Apl I and the Ca2+-independent PKC Apl II. PKC Apl I, but not PKC Apl II is activated by a short-term application of the neurotransmitter serotonin. This may be explained by the fact that purified PKC Apl II requires a higher mole(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule with diverse bio-messenger functions including regulation of gene expression. Transcriptional studies using sensitive luciferase reporter systems have suggested that NO inhibits the promoter activity of a variety of genes. Here we report that NO donors (sodium nitroprusside,(More)
Exercise promotes positive bone remodeling through controlling cellular processes in bone. Nitric oxide (NO), generated from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), prevents resorption, whereas receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL) promotes resorption through regulating osteoclast activity. Here we show that mechanical strain differentially(More)
Mechanical strain inhibits osteoclastogenesis by regulating osteoblast functions: We have shown that strain inhibits receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression and increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide levels through ERK1/2 signaling in primary bone stromal cells. The primary stromal culture system, while(More)
UNLABELLED The skeletal phenotype of the cav-1(-/-) mouse, which lacks caveolae, was examined. muCT and histology showed increased trabecular and cortical bone caused by the gene deletion. Structural changes were accompanied by increased mechanical properties. Cell studies showed that cav-1 deficiency leads to increased osteoblast differentiation. These(More)
The master transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of antioxidant and phase II-metabolizing enzymes by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) and thereby protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress. Pulmonary complications remain the leading cause of death in human immunodeficiency(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to(More)