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The molecular pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is poorly understood. Whole-genome and exome sequencing followed by innovative tumorgraft analyses (to accurately determine mutant allele ratios) identified several putative two-hit tumor suppressor genes, including BAP1. The BAP1 protein, a nuclear deubiquitinase, is inactivated in 15% of clear cell(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the tolerability of escalating doses of stereotactic body radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible patients included those with Gleason score 2 to 6 with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 20, Gleason score 7 with PSA ≤ 15, ≤ T2b, prostate size ≤ 60 cm(3), and American Urological(More)
Abundant evidence suggests that a unifying principle governing the molecular pathology of cancer is the co-dependent aberrant regulation of core machinery driving proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. Anomalous proteins engaged in support of this tumorigenic regulatory environment most probably represent optimal intervention targets in a heterogeneous(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is an important, highly conserved, regulator of cell growth. Ancient among the signals that regulate mTORC1 are nutrients. Amino acids direct mTORC1 to the surface of the late endosome/lysosome, where mTORC1 becomes receptive to other inputs. However, the interplay between endosomes and mTORC1 is(More)
BACKGROUND Limited food choices and inadequate nutrient intake are linked to poor oral health. The authors describe relationships between dietary variety, nutrient intake and oral health measures in community-dwelling, rural Iowans aged 79 years and older. METHODS Dental examinations were conducted by trained and calibrated examiners, and trained(More)
The development of new modes of diagnosis and targeted therapy for lung cancer is dependent on the identification of unique cell surface features on cancer cells and isolation of reagents that bind with high affinity and specificity to these biomarkers. We recently isolated a 20-mer peptide which binds to the lung adenocarcinoma cell line, H2009, from a(More)
Bone-resorbing osteoclasts significantly contribute to osteoporosis and bone metastases of cancer. MicroRNAs play important roles in physiology and disease, and present tremendous therapeutic potential. Nonetheless, how microRNAs regulate skeletal biology is underexplored. Here we identify miR-34a as a novel and critical suppressor of osteoclastogenesis,(More)
BACKGROUND Clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas display divergent clinical behaviours. However, the molecular genetic events driving these behaviours are unknown. We discovered that BAP1 is mutated in about 15% of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, and that BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations are largely mutually exclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
The clinical experimental agent, β-lapachone (β-lap; Arq 501), can act as a potent radiosensitizer in vitro through an unknown mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism to determine whether β-lap may warrant clinical evaluation as a radiosensitizer. β-Lap killed prostate cancer cells by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) metabolic(More)
BACKGROUND Many established breast cancer risk factors are related to the timing and duration of exposure to reproductive hormones, which are known to drive breast epithelial cell proliferation. The epigenetic molecular clock hypothesis suggests that CpG island methylation records the cell division history of benign epithelium. In proliferative epithelium,(More)