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A novel member of the opioid receptor family (ORL-1) has been cloned from a variety of vertebrates. ORL-1 does not bind any of the classical opioids, although a high affinity endogenous agonist with close homology to dynorphin has recently been identified. We have generated a monoclonal antibody to the N-terminus of ORL-1 to map areas of receptor expression(More)
Opioid ligands may exert antinociception through receptors expressed on peripheral afferent axons. Whether local opioid receptors might attenuate neuropathic pain is uncertain. In this work, we examined the function and expression of local mu opioid receptors (MORs) associated with the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of sciatic neuropathic pain in(More)
CGRP peptide, a widely expressed constituent of sensory neurons, plays important roles in nerve function and repair when axons are severed. CGRP synthesis declines, yet peptide nonetheless accumulates in severed axon endbulbs. In this work we explore an apparent selective and ongoing expression of CGRP peptide in regenerative sensory axon sprouts. Following(More)
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine whether opioid receptor-like sequences are present in species from the protostome and deuterostome branches of the metazoan kingdom. Multiple opioid receptor-like sequences were found in all vertebrates, but no specific fragments were obtained from any invertebrates. Delta, mu, kappa and ORL-1 receptors were(More)
The structural alterations of neuronal processes in mice were investigated after the mice were infected with rabies virus (RV). Silver staining of infected brain sections showed severe destruction and disorganization of neuronal processes in mice infected with pathogenic RV but not with attenuated RV. However, neuronal bodies showed very little pathological(More)
Rabies virus (RV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. However, the pathogenic mechanism of rabies is not fully understood. To investigate the host responses to RV infection, we examined and compared the pathology, particularly the inflammatory responses, and the gene expression profiles in the brains of mice infected with wild-type (wt) virus(More)
Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) is a functional receptor of myelin-associated inhibitors for axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, and thus suppresses nerve regeneration. The regulatory effect of PirB on injured nerves has received a lot of attention. To better understand nerve regeneration inability after(More)
Induction of apoptosis by rabies virus (RV) has been reported to be associated with the expression of the glycoprotein (G), but inversely correlated with pathogenicity. To further delineate the association between the expression of the G and the induction of apoptosis, recombinant RVs with replacement of only the G gene were used to infect mice by the(More)
Proteomics technology was employed to profile host responses to rabies virus (RABV) infection in order to understand how RABV infection results in neuronal dysfunction. In mice infected with wild-type (wt) RABV, the expression of proteins involved in ion homeostasis was altered. H+ ATPase and Na+/K+ ATPase were up-regulated while Ca2+ ATPase was(More)
BACKGROUND Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. There are eight serologically distinct botulinum neurotoxin isoforms (serotypes A-H). Currently, botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT⁄A) is commonly used for the treatment of many disorders, such as hyperactive musculoskeletal disorders, dystonia, and pain. However, the(More)