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Using next-generation sequencing technology alone, we have successfully generated and assembled a draft sequence of the giant panda genome. The assembled contigs (2.25 gigabases (Gb)) cover approximately 94% of the whole genome, and the remaining gaps (0.05 Gb) seem to contain carnivore-specific repeats and tandem repeats. Comparisons with the dog and human(More)
Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are(More)
Automating Service Oriented Architectures by augmenting them with semantics will form the basis of the next generation of computing. Selection of service still is an important challenge, especially, when a set of services fulfilling user’s capabilities requirements have been discovered, among these services which one will be eventually invoked by user is(More)
Upon recognition of bacterial flagellin, the plant receptor FLS2 heterodimerizes with brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and activates plant defense responses. Because constitutive activation of defense responses is detrimental, plant resistance signaling pathways must be negatively controlled, although the mechanisms involved(More)
Effector proteins secreted by oomycete and fungal pathogens have been inferred to enter host cells, where they interact with host resistance gene products. Using the effector protein Avr1b of Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean (Glycine max), we show that a pair of sequence motifs, RXLR and dEER, plus surrounding sequences, are both(More)
The cellular microRNA miR-155 has been shown to be involved in lymphocyte activation and is expressed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells displaying type III latency gene expression but not type I latency gene expression. We show here that the elevated levels of miR-155 in type III latency cells is due to EBV gene expression and not epigenetic(More)
The sequenced genomes of oomycete plant pathogens contain large superfamilies of effector proteins containing the protein translocation motif RXLR-dEER. However, the contributions of these effectors to pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Phytophthora sojae effector protein Avr1b can contribute positively to virulence and can(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomic studies in Drosophila melanogaster. However, single-guide RNA (sgRNA) parameters affecting the specificity and efficiency of the system in flies are still not clear. Here, we found that off-target effects did not occur in regions of genomic DNA with three or more(More)
RNA-seq was used to generate an extensive map of the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome by broad sampling of 10 developmental stages. In total, 142.2 million uniquely mapped 64-100-bp paired-end reads were generated on the Illumina GA II yielding 356× sequencing coverage. More than 95% of FlyBase genes and 90% of splicing junctions were observed.(More)
The human OCT4 gene can generate at least three transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1) and four protein isoforms (OCT4A, OCT4B-190, OCT4B-265, and OCT4B-164) by alternative splicing and alternative translation initiation. OCT4A is a transcription factor responsible for the pluripotency properties of embryonic stem (ES) cells. While OCT4B cannot sustain ES(More)