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The antimicrobial peptide database (APD, http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) has been updated and expanded. It now hosts 1228 entries with 65 anticancer, 76 antiviral (53 anti-HIV), 327 antifungal and 944 antibacterial peptides. The second version of our database (APD2) allows users to search peptide families (e.g. bacteriocins, cyclotides, or defensins),(More)
1. In order to explore potential therapeutic implications of cannabinoid antagonists, the effects of the prototypical cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A on monoamine efflux from the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the rat were investigated by in vivo microdialysis. 2. SR141716A moderately increased serotonin efflux and concentrations of(More)
Submicroscopic (less than 2 Mb) segmental DNA copy number changes are a recently recognized source of genetic variability between individuals. The biological consequences of copy number variants (CNVs) are largely undefined. In some cases, CNVs that cause gene dosage effects have been implicated in phenotypic variation. CNVs have been detected in diverse(More)
Development of robust and efficient methods for analyzing and interpreting high dimension gene expression profiles continues to be a focus in computational biology. The accumulated experiment evidence supports the assumption that genes express and perform their functions in modular fashions in cells. Therefore, there is an open space for development of the(More)
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells are thought to be critical in psoriasis pathogenesis. Here, we report that IL-23 predominantly stimulated dermal γδ T cells to produce IL-17 that led to disease progression. Dermal γδ T cells constitutively expressed the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and transcriptional factor RORγt. IL-17 production from(More)
Previous studies suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors do not appear to be involved in cocaine's rewarding effects, as assessed by the use of SR141716A, a prototypic CB1 receptor antagonist and CB1-knockout mice. In the present study, we found that blockade of CB1 receptors by AM 251 (1-10 mg/kg), a novel CB1 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently lowered(More)
Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neuropathies, neurodegenerative diseases, and injuries. Here, using a Drosophila injury model, we have identified a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, Highwire (Hiw), as an important regulator of axonal and synaptic degeneration. Mutations in hiw strongly inhibit Wallerian degeneration in multiple neuron types(More)
The presence and function of cannabinoid CB(2) receptors in the brain have been the subjects of much debate. We found that systemic, intranasal or intra-accumbens local administration of JWH133, a selective CB(2) receptor agonist, dose-dependently inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration, cocaine-enhanced locomotion, and cocaine-enhanced accumbens(More)
Blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors has been reported to inhibit cocaine- or cocaine cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are poorly understood. Given the importance of dopamine, glutamate, and GABA in cocaine reward and relapse, we studied the effects of AM251(More)
1. AMPA receptor potentiators (ARPs) exhibit antidepressant-like activity in preclinical tests (for example, the forced swim test) that are highly predictive of efficacy in humans. Unlike most currently used antidepressants, ARPs do not elevate extracellular levels of biogenic amines (e.g., 5HT, NE) in prefrontal cortex at doses that are active in the(More)