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Similar to the visual dual-pathway model, neurophysiological studies in non-human primates have suggested that the dual-pathway model is also applicable for explaining auditory cortical processing, including the ventral "what" pathway for object identification and the dorsal "where" pathway for spatial localization. This review summarizes evidence from(More)
Based on the Motor Theory of speech perception, the interaction between the auditory and motor systems plays an essential role in speech perception. Since the Motor Theory was proposed, it has received remarkable attention in the field. However, each of the three hypotheses of the theory still needs further verification. In this review, we focus on how the(More)
Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and(More)
A method based on focused microwave extraction for leaching 9 trace elements in traditional Chinese medicine Long Dan Cao was introduced. An online C18 enrichment-separation system and an HP4500 ICP mass spectrometer with a flow injection system was established for the separation and determination of inorganic speciation and organic speciation of the(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is suppression of the startle reflex when an intense startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker sensory stimulus (the prepulse). It is an operational measurement of sensorimotor gating mechanism to help human adapt to complex environment. This weak prepulse protect central cognitive processing by damping the effect of intense(More)
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