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In this paper, we focus on discrete expression classification using dynamic 3D sequences (4D data) recording the facial movements. A robust approach for registering 4D data is proposed and a variant of local binary patterns on three orthogonal planes is used for feature extraction. We present a fully automatic facial expression recognition pipeline. The(More)
p53 is a frequent target for mutation in human tumors, and mutant p53 proteins can actively contribute to tumorigenesis. We employed a three-dimensional culture model in which nonmalignant breast epithelial cells form spheroids reminiscent of acinar structures found in vivo, whereas breast cancer cells display highly disorganized morphology. We found that(More)
Coordinated development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for normal function of neuronal circuits. Using homo- and heterochronic cultures of hippocampal neurons, we compared the formation of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses at different stages and asked whether the age of dendrites affects their ability to accept new glutamatergic and(More)
Textured 3D face models capture precise facial surfaces along with the associated textures, making it possible for an accurate description of facial activities. In this paper, we present a unified probabilistic framework based on a novel Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for 3D facial expression and Action Unit (AU) recognition. The proposed BBN performs(More)
Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark(More)
— This survey focuses on discrete expression classification and facial action unit recognition performed using 3D face data, possibly including a corresponding 2D texture image. Research trends to date are summarized and the limitations of current methods are discussed. The challenges towards the development of more accurate and automated 3D facial(More)