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In this paper we study an alternate network architecture, called translucent network, to the fully transparent and fully opaque network architectures. In a translucent wavelength-routed optical network, a technique called sparse regeneration is used to overcome the severe lightpath blocking due to signal quality degradation and wavelength contention in a(More)
The static provisioning problem in wavelength-routed optical networks has been studied for many years. However, service providers are still facing the challenges arising from the special requirements for provisioning services at the optical layer. In this paper, we incorporate some realistic constraints into the static provisioning problem, and formulate it(More)
The human gut microbiota is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, but little is known about their diversity and richness within the gut. Here we analyse the antibiotic resistance genes of gut microbiota from 162 individuals. We identify a total of 1,093 antibiotic resistance genes and find that Chinese individuals harbour the highest number and(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to incurable androgen ablation-resistant prostate cancer (PCA). We have identified three novel AR splice variants lacking the ligand-binding domain (designated as AR3, AR4, and AR5) in hormone-insensitive PCA cells. AR3, one of the major splice variants expressed in human prostate tissues, is(More)
We previously showed that the 44-kDa serine/threonine kinase Pim-1 (Pim-1L) can protect prostate cancer cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs (Xie, Y., Xu, K., Dai, B., Guo, Z., Jiang, T., Chen, H., and Qiu, Y. (2006) Oncogene 25, 70-78). To further explore the mechanisms of Pim-1L-mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in prostate(More)
PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the relationship between succession of phytoplankton community and temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in the eutrophic Lake Taihu. Serious Microcystis bloom was observed in July-December 2008 and Bacillariophyta(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter that, through the subtype A GABA receptor (GABAAR), induces inhibition in the adult brain. Here we show that an excitatory, rather than inhibitory, GABAergic system exists in airway epithelial cells. Both GABAARs and the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are expressed in(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies have identified the key components of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), some of which regulate ABA responses by the transcriptional regulation of downstream genes. Here, we report the functional identification of rice(More)
Autophagy differs from apoptosis and is independent of phagocytes by the appearance of autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and complete nuclei in the cell. This process significantly contributes to the antineoplastic effects of radiation. Radiation is an important strategy in cancer treatment; however, many types of cancer show radioresistance. The effects of(More)