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Neural networks have been successfully applied to various pattern recognition and function approximation problems. However, the training process remains a time-consuming procedure that often gets stuck in a local minimum. The optimum network size and topology are usually unknown. In this paper, we formulate the concept of extrema equivalence for estimating(More)
To ensure data fidelity, a number of random error correction codes (ECCs) have been developed. ECC is, however, not efficient in combating bursts of errors, i.e., a group of consecutive (in one-dimensional (1-D) case) or connected (in two-and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) case) erroneous code symbols owing to the bursty nature of errors. Interleaving is a(More)
This paper proposes an optimal rate allocation scheme for Fine-Granular Scalability (FGS) coded bitstreams that can achieve constant quality reconstruction of frames under a dynamic rate budget constraint. In doing so, we also aim to minimize the overall distortion at the same time. To achieve this, we propose a novel R-D labeling scheme to characterize the(More)
This paper proposes an optimal rate allocation scheme for Fine-Granular Scalability (FGS) coded bitstreams that can achieve constant quality reconstruction of frames under a dynamic rate budget constraint. In doing so, we also aim to minimize the overall distortion at the same time. To achieve this, we propose a novel R-D labeling scheme to characterize the(More)
In this paper, we propose a constant quality rate allocation algorithm for MPEG-4 FGS (Fine Granularity Scalability) coded video sequences. The rate allocation problem is formulated as a constrained minimization of quality fluctuation. The minimization is solved using a novel composite rate distortion analysis. For a set of video frames, a composite rate(More)
In practice, interlaced video sequences are typically coded with either a frame-only or field-only structure, irrespective of the content. However, coding in this way will not provide the best coding efficiency. This paper proposes an adaptive picture-level field/frame coding scheme with corresponding rate control. First, a two-pass field/frame decision(More)
In addition to the antigen receptor, resting T cells express a number of receptors that can be stimulated to generate proliferative signals. These "accessory" receptors require co-expression of the T cell receptor (TCR), suggesting that they channel their signals via secondary activation of the signal transduction function of the CD3-TCR complex. Little is(More)
We propose an interleaving scheme for multidimensional (M-D) interleaving. To achieved by using a novel concept of basis interleaving array. A general method of obtaining a variety of basis interleaving arrays is presented. Based on the basis inter-leaving array, we then propose an interleaving technique, called successive packing, to generate the(More)