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Infectious diseases have influenced population genetics and the evolution of the structure of the human genome in part by selecting for host susceptibility alleles that modify pathogenesis. Norovirus infection is associated with ∼90% of epidemic non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Here, we show that resistance to Norwalk virus infection is(More)
Noroviruses are one of the major causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis epidemics in humans. Recent studies on norovirus receptors show that different noroviruses recognize different human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and eight receptor binding patterns of noroviruses have been identified. The P domain of the norovirus capsids is directly involved in(More)
In this study, we report the characterization of a novel calicivirus (CV), the Tulane virus (TV), which was isolated from stool samples of captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of the Tulane National Primate Research Center. The complete genome of TV contains 6,714 nucleotides plus a poly(A) tail and is organized into three open reading frames(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Norwalk Virus (NV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family, which causes acute epidemic gastroenteritis in humans of all ages and its cellular receptors have not yet been characterized. Another calicivirus, Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, attaches to H type 2 histo-blood group oligosaccharide present on rabbit epithelial cells. Our aim(More)
Inactivating mutations of the PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) endopeptidase, the disease-causing gene in X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), results in increased circulating levels of fibroblastic growth factor-23 (FGF23), a bone-derived phosphaturic factor. To determine the causal role of FGF23 in XLH, we(More)
Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis, have been found to recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors. Four strain-specific binding patterns to HBGAs have been described in our previous report. In this study, we have extended the binding patterns to seven based on 14 noroviruses examined. The oligosaccharide-based(More)
Noroviruses are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis. Increasing data showed that the GII-4 strains are predominant worldwide and new GII-4 variants emerge every 1-2 years causing major epidemics. Surveillance of gastroenteritis in hospitalized children under 5 years of age in China is described. Among 1,110 specimens, 114 (10.3%) were positive for(More)
Increased expression levels of miR-181 family members have been shown to be associated with favorable outcome in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. Here we show that increased expression of miR-181a and miR-181b is also significantly (P < .05; Cox regression) associated with favorable overall survival in cytogenetically abnormal(More)
Over the course of ontogenesis, the human brain and human cognitive abilities develop in parallel, resulting in a phenotype strikingly distinct from that of other primates. Here, we used microarrays and RNA-sequencing to examine human-specific gene expression changes taking place during postnatal brain development in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of(More)
We characterized the binding of 8 Noroviruses (NORs) to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in human saliva using recombinant NOR (rNOR) capsid proteins. Among the 8 rNORs tested, 6 formed viruslike particles (VLPs) when the capsid proteins were expressed in insect cells, all of which revealed variable binding activities with saliva; the remaining 2 rNORs(More)