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Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycolipoproteins via the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin controls embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Here we review recent progress in this so-called canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We discuss Wnt ligands, agonists, and antagonists, and their interactions with Wnt receptors. We also dissect(More)
Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a subset of bone marrow cells that are capable of self-renewal and of forming all types of blood cells (multi-potential). However, the HSC 'niche'--the in vivo regulatory microenvironment where HSCs reside--and the mechanisms involved in controlling the number of adult HSCs remain largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic(More)
Signalling by the Wnt family of secreted lipoproteins has essential functions in development and disease. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway requires a single-span transmembrane receptor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), whose phosphorylation at multiple PPPSP motifs is induced upon stimulation by Wnt and is critical for(More)
Mutation in the TSC2 tumor suppressor causes tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease characterized by hamartoma formation in multiple tissues. TSC2 inhibits cell growth by acting as a GTPase-activating protein toward Rheb, thereby inhibiting mTOR, a central controller of cell growth. Here, we show that Wnt activates mTOR via inhibiting GSK3 without involving(More)
Wnt regulation of beta-catenin degradation is essential for development and carcinogenesis. beta-catenin degradation is initiated upon amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation, which is believed to be performed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in complex with tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adnomatous polyposis coli (APC). Here we describe(More)
BACKGROUND Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a head inducer secreted from the vertebrate head organizer and induces anterior development by antagonizing Wnt signaling. Although several families of secreted antagonists have been shown to inhibit Wnt signal transduction by binding to Wnt, the molecular mechanism of Dkk-1 action is unknown. The Wnt family of secreted(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must achieve a balance between quiescence and activation that fulfils immediate demands for haematopoiesis without compromising long-term stem cell maintenance, yet little is known about the molecular events governing this balance. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) functions as a negative regulator of the(More)
Wnt/Frizzled (Fz) signaling controls cell polarity/movements during vertebrate gastrulation via incompletely defined mechanisms. We demonstrated previously that Wnt/Fz activation of Rho, a GTPase and regulator of cytoskeletal architecture, is essential for vertebrate gastrulation. Here we report that in mammalian cells and Xenopus embryos, Wnt/Fz signaling(More)
In humans, mutations in BMPR1A, SMAD4 and PTEN are responsible for juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile intestinal polyposis and Cowden disease, respectively. The development of polyposis is a common feature of these diseases, suggesting that there is an association between BMP and PTEN pathways. The mechanistic link between BMP and PTEN pathways and the(More)