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We report the 207-Mb genome sequence of the North American Arabidopsis lyrata strain MN47 based on 8.3× dideoxy sequence coverage. We predict 32,670 genes in this outcrossing species compared to the 27,025 genes in the selfing species Arabidopsis thaliana. The much smaller 125-Mb genome of A. thaliana, which diverged from A. lyrata 10 million years ago,(More)
In epithelial tissues, the lineage relationship between normal progenitor cells and cell type(s) of origin for cancer has been poorly understood. Here we show that a known regulator of prostate epithelial differentiation, the homeobox gene Nkx3-1, marks a stem cell population that functions during prostate regeneration. Genetic lineage-marking demonstrates(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their transcription and transposition is controlled through siRNAs and epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. To dissect the interplay of siRNA-mediated regulation and TE evolution, and to examine how TE differences affect nearby gene expression, we investigated genome-wide(More)
Drug addiction, characterized by high rates of relapse, is recognized as a kind of neuroadaptive disorder. Since the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical to neuroplasticity in the adult brain, understanding the role this pathway plays is important for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drug addiction and relapse.(More)
Relapse to drug seeking was studied using a rodent model of reinstatement induced by exposure to drug-related cues. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth and survival by controlling translation in response to nutrients and growth factors, has been demonstrated to be involved in neuronal(More)
Depression is one of the most pervasive and debilitating psychiatric diseases, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of depression have not been elucidated. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory, and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether Cdk5 participates in the(More)
BACKGROUND Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. RESULTS As a first step towards the characterization of(More)
The adult prostate possesses a significant regenerative capacity that is of great interest for understanding adult stem cell biology. We demonstrate that leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in a rare population of prostate epithelial progenitor cells, and a castration-resistant Lgr5(+) population exists in(More)
BACKGROUND Ventral tegmental area (VTA) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to time-dependent increases in cue-induced cocaine seeking after withdrawal (incubation of cocaine craving). Here, we studied the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in incubation of cocaine craving because, like BDNF, GDNF provides trophic(More)
Inflammatory response following central nervous system (CNS) injury contributes to progressive neuropathology and reduction in functional recovery. Axons are sensitive to mechanical injury and toxic inflammatory mediators, which may lead to demyelination. Although it is well documented that degenerated myelin triggers undesirable inflammatory responses in(More)