Xavier Viviand

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STUDY OBJECTIVE The aims of the study were to evaluate the technique of selective digestion decontamination (SDD) in preventing the development of nosocomial infections in a selected population and to assess the effects on colonization of the oropharynx, nares, and bronchi. A financial assessment was also performed. DESIGN Prospective, double-blind,(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite increasingly sophisticated critical care, the mortality of septic shock remains elevated. Accordingly, care remains supportive. Volume resuscitation combined with vasopressor support remains the standard of care as adjuvant therapy, and many consider dopamine to be the pressor of choice. Because of fear of excessive vasoconstriction,(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS Complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) have been assessed in recent multicenter studies. The aim of this series was to report and identify risk factors for complications of ES at a single tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between 1996 and 2000, 1159 consecutive endoscopic retrograde(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of bolus injection and infusion of sufentanil, alfentanil, and fentanyl on cerebral hemodynamics and electroencephalogram activity in patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe head trauma. DESIGN Randomized, unblended, crossover study. SETTING Intensive care unit and trauma center in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of central venous catheter-induced thrombosis of the axillary vein. DESIGN Prospective, controlled study. SETTING Tertiary care university center. PATIENTS Sixty patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit who required central venous catheterization via the axillary vein. INTERVENTIONS Single-lumen,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of complications following the use of femoral catheters in adults. DESIGN Prospective survey of major and minor complications. SETTING A mixed medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. PATIENTS Eighty consecutive patients admitted to the ICU who underwent right femoral venous catheterization(More)
OBJECTIVE The manual injection of a bolus of opioid in patients with brain injury induces an increase in intracranial pressure related to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Such an effect has not been observed with the use of ketamine. The use of target-controlled infusion would minimize or suppress this adverse effect of opioid. This study evaluated the(More)
BACKGROUND There is a lack of information and knowledge about the practical importance of even low concentrations of the excretion of local anesthetics into breast milk, particularly concerning bupivacaine. The present work aims to confirm, under practical clinical conditions of admission of parturients, the passage of local anesthetics (lidocaine and(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this prospective study was to determine the target concentration (CPRED) curves for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion in children. METHODS The CPRED of propofol required for insertion of the LMA was determined in 72 unpremedicated children, aged 3-10 years, ASA physical status I. CPRED was reached in 2 min according to a(More)
OBJECTIVE Many heat and moisture exchangers with filter (HMEF) have been developed. In-house data from companies provide some information about their performances; unfortunately, to our knowledge, no comparative evaluation in clinical conditions has been undertaken of these newer products. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two HMEFs,(More)