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Recently, it was observed that reverse-translocated cytosolic PrP and PrP expressed in the cytosol induce rapid death in neurons (Ma, J., Wollmann, R., and Lindquist, S. (2002) Science 298, 1781-1785). In this study, we investigated whether accumulation of prion protein (PrP) in the cytosol is toxic to human neurons in primary culture. We show that in these(More)
Recent studies have revealed that accumulation of prion protein (PrP) in the cytoplasm results in the production of aggregates that are insoluble in non-ionic detergents and partially resistant to proteinase K. Transgenic mice expressing PrP in the cytoplasm develop severe ataxia with cerebellar degeneration and gliosis, suggesting that cytoplasmic PrP may(More)
Plasma membrane cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a high-affinity receptor for toxic soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers that mediates synaptic dysfunction. Secreted forms of PrP(C) resulting from PrP(C) α-cleavage (PrPN1) or shedding (shed PrP(C)) display neuroprotective activity in neuronal cultures and in mouse models of Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction. In(More)
The normal function of prion protein (PrP) is usually disregarded at the expense of the more fascinating role of PrP in transmissible prion diseases. However, the normal PrP may play an important role in cellular function in the central nervous system, since PrP is highly expressed in neurons and motifs in the sequence of PrP are conserved in evolution. The(More)
The cytotoxicity of extracellular amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) has been clearly demonstrated in many cell types. In contrast, primary human neurons in culture are resistant to extracellular Abeta-mediated toxicity. Here, we investigate the involvement of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in Abeta-treated human neurons. We find that Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42,(More)
A fully mature mRNA is usually associated to a reference open reading frame encoding a single protein. Yet, mature mRNAs contain unconventional alternative open reading frames (AltORFs) located in untranslated regions (UTRs) or overlapping the reference ORFs (RefORFs) in non-canonical +2 and +3 reading frames. Although recent ribosome profiling and(More)
Aggregation of the α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein, amyloid fibril formation and progressive neurodegeneration are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, a detailed mechanism of α-Syn aggregation/fibrillogenesis and the exact nature of toxic oligomeric species produced during amyloid formation process are still unknown. In this(More)
The physiological function of the prion protein (PrP(C) ) and its conversion into its infectious form (PrP(Sc) ) are central issues to understanding the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The N-terminal moiety of PrP(C) (NH(2) -PrP(C) ) is an unstructured region with the characteristic of interacting with a broad range of partners. These interactions endow(More)
Human alternative open reading frames (HAltORF) is a publicly available and searchable online database referencing putative products of out-of-frame alternative translation initiation (ATI) in human mRNAs. Out-of-frame ATI is a process by which a single mRNA encodes independent proteins, when distinct initiation codons located in different reading frames(More)
Bax is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The Bax protein is dormant in the cytosol of normal cells and is activated upon induction of apoptosis. In apoptotic cells, Bax gets translocated to mitochondria, inserts into the outer membrane, oligomerizes and triggers the release of cytochrome c, possibly by channel formation. The BH3(More)