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Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in(More)
The acclimation responses of walnut leaf photosynthesis to the irradiance microclimate were investigated by characterizing the photosynthetic properties of the leaves sampled on young trees (Juglans nigraxregia) grown in simulated sun and shade environments, and within a mature walnut tree crown (Juglans regia) in the field. In the young trees, the CO(2)(More)
Aims To identify approaches to improve our understanding of, and predictive capability for, mixed tree–grass systems. Elucidation of the interactions, dynamics and determinants, and identification of robust generalizations that can be broadly applied to tree–grass systems would benefit ecological theory, modelling and land management. Methods A series of(More)
In ecology, biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research has seen a shift in perspective from taxonomy to function in the last two decades, with successful application of trait-based approaches. This shift offers opportunities for a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem processes and services. In(More)
Data interconnects are on the verge of a revolution. Electrical links are increasingly being pushed to their limits with the ever increasing demand for bandwidth. Data transmission in the optical domain is a leading candidate to satisfy this need. The optical modulator is key to most applications and increasing the data rate at which it operates is(More)
Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits(More)
We report error-free long-haul transmission of optical data modulated using a silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator with modulation rates up to 12.5 Gb/s. Using bit-error-rate and power penalty characterizations, we evaluate the performance of this device with varying modulation rates, and perform a comparative analysis using a commercial(More)
A key device in future high speed short reach interconnect technology will be the optical modulator. These devices, in silicon, have experienced dramatic improvements over the last 6 years and the modulation bandwidth has increased from a few tens of MHz to over 30 GHz. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant. Here we describe an(More)
Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)