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Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in(More)
The acclimation responses of walnut leaf photosynthesis to the irradiance microclimate were investigated by characterizing the photosynthetic properties of the leaves sampled on young trees (Juglans nigraxregia) grown in simulated sun and shade environments, and within a mature walnut tree crown (Juglans regia) in the field. In the young trees, the CO(2)(More)
Analysing the consequences of the decrease in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning and stability has been a major concern in ecology. However, the impact of decline in soil microbial diversity on ecosystem sustainability remains largely unknown. This has been assessed for decomposition, which is insured by a large proportion of the soil microbial(More)
In ecology, biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research has seen a shift in perspective from taxonomy to function in the last two decades, with successful application of trait-based approaches. This shift offers opportunities for a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem processes and services. In(More)
Management by combined grazing and mowing events is commonly used in grasslands, which influences the activity and composition of soil bacterial communities. Whether observed effects are mediated by management-induced disturbances, or indirectly by changes in the identity of major plant species, is still unknown. To address this issue, we quantified(More)
Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits(More)
A key device in future high speed short reach interconnect technology will be the optical modulator. These devices, in silicon, have experienced dramatic improvements over the last 6 years and the modulation bandwidth has increased from a few tens of MHz to over 30 GHz. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant. Here we describe an(More)
Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
We report studies of optical Fabry-Perot microcavities based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes with a quality factor of 160. We experimentally demonstrate a huge photoluminescence signal enhancement by a factor of 30 in comparison with the identical film and by a factor of 180 if compared with a thin film containing non-purified (8,7)(More)