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Visual attention is a mechanism by which observers select relevant or important information from the current visual array. Previous investigations have focused primarily on the ability to select a region of space for further visual analysis. These studies have revealed a distributed frontoparietal circuit that is responsible for the control of spatial(More)
The brain's response to functional activation is characterized by focal increases in cerebral blood flow. It is generally assumed that this hyperemia is a direct response to the energy demands of activation, the so-called flow-metabolism coupling. Here we report experimental evidence that increases in oxygen metabolism can occur after activation without(More)
During brain activation, local control of oxygen delivery is facilitated through microvascular dilatation and constriction. A new functional MRI (fMRI) methodology is reported that is sensitive to these microvascular adjustments. This contrast is accomplished by eliminating the blood signal in a manner that is independent of blood oxygenation and flow. As a(More)
Visual attention may be voluntarily directed to particular locations or features (voluntary control), or it may be captured by salient stimuli, such as the abrupt appearance of a new perceptual object (stimulus-driven control). Most often, however, the deployment of attention is the result of a dynamic interplay between voluntary attentional control(More)
We present a technique to measure the longitudinal relaxation time constant of venous blood (T(1b) ) in vivo in a few seconds. The MRI sequence consists of a thick-slab adiabatic inversion, followed by a series of slice-selective excitations and single-shot echo planar imaging readouts. The time intervals between excitations were chosen so that blood in(More)
In this work a model-free arterial spin labeling (ASL) quantification approach for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial blood volume (aBV) is proposed. The method is based on the acquisition of a train of multiple images following the labeling scheme. Perfusion is obtained using deconvolution in a manner similar to that of dynamic susceptibility(More)
We studied the neural correlates of rapid eye movement during sleep (REM) by timing REMs from video recording and using rapid event-related functional MRI. Consistent with the hypothesis that REMs share the brain systems and mechanisms with waking eye movements and are visually-targeted saccades, we found REM-locked activation in the primary visual cortex,(More)
Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a method to measure perfusion using magnetically labeled blood water as an endogenous tracer. Being fully non-invasive, this technique is attractive for longitudinal studies of cerebral blood flow in healthy and diseased individuals, or as a surrogate marker of metabolism. So far, ASL has been restricted mostly to specialist(More)
Motion sensitivity in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be effectively suppressed using single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI). However, segmented (multishot) EPI is often used to increase resolution and reduce spatial distortions, which in turn increases susceptibility to brain motion. The sources of these residual motion artifacts in(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can delineate white matter architecture based on fiber orientation. The purpose of this paper is to use the orientation information contained in DTI to study axonal organization of the brain both macroscopically and quantitatively. After performing gray/white matter segmentation using a fractional anisotropy threshold, the(More)