Xavier Castells

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BACKGROUND Reducing the false-positive risk in breast cancer screening is important. We examined how the screening-protocol and women's characteristics affect the cumulative false-positive risk. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of 1,565,364 women aged 45-69 years who underwent 4,739,498 screening mammograms from 1990 to 2006. Multilevel(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of methylphenidate for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows wide between-study variability, which yields heterogeneous results in meta-analysis. The reasons for this variability have not been comprehensively investigated. OBJECTIVES To determine the influence of treatment-related covariates of(More)
BACKGROUND The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services(More)
PURPOSE To compare the effect of the introduction of digital mammography on the recall rate, detection rate, false-positive rate, and rates of invasive procedures performed in the first and successive rounds of a population-based breast cancer screening program with double reading in Barcelona, Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was approved by the(More)
To analyze phenotypic classification and other risk factors for interval breast cancer, focusing on true interval and false negative cancers. A nested case–control study was performed among 115 cancers detected between two screening mammograms (interval cancers) and 115 screen-detected cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2008 in a population-based breast(More)
False-positive results may influence adherence to mammography screening. The effectiveness of breast cancer screening is closely related to adequate adherence among the target population. The objective of this study was to evaluate how false-positives and women’s characteristics affect the likelihood of reattendance at routine breast cancer screening in a(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Despite recommendation of surgery in both eyes in patients with bilateral cataract, there is little evidence about the benefits of second-eye surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the benefits of cataract surgery in both eyes with those of surgery in one eye only. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Two-arm randomized(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal(More)
BACKGROUND Hospital structural level has been suggested as a factor that could explain part of the resource use variation left unexplained by diagnosis related groups (DRGs). However, the relationship between hospital structural level and the presence of cases of extreme resource use (outliers) is not known. Some prospective payment systems pay these cases(More)