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BACKGROUND Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between exposure to ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between outdoor air quality and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid artery intima-media thickness, CIMT). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We examined data from five double-blind(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly considered a heterogeneous condition. It was hypothesised that COPD, as currently defined, includes different clinically relevant subtypes. METHODS To identify and validate COPD subtypes, 342 subjects hospitalised for the first time because of a COPD exacerbation were recruited. Three(More)
BACKGROUND Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. OBJECTIVES The Human(More)
This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a(More)
BACKGROUND Green spaces are reported to improve health status, including beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes. Despite the suggestions of air pollution-related health benefits of green spaces, there is no available evidence on the impact of greenness on personal exposure to air pollution. OBJECTIVES We investigated the association between surrounding(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. OBJECTIVES We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS We analyzed 15(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase blood pressure (BP) and induce hypertension. However, evidence supporting these associations is limited, and they may be confounded by exposure to traffic noise and biased due to inappropriate control for use of BP-lowering medications. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the associations of(More)
Exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health. Although this exposure could also influence cognitive development in children, available epidemiological evidence on such an impact is scarce. This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to green space and measures of cognitive development in primary(More)
BACKGROUND Green spaces have been associated with improved physical and mental health; however, the available evidence on the impact of green spaces on pregnancy is scarce. OBJECTIVES We investigated the association between surrounding greenness and birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age at delivery. METHODS This study was based on 2,393(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on the chronic processes of atherogenesis is limited. OBJECTIVE We investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI).(More)