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Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) effector protein via the cag-Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) into host cells is a major risk factor for severe gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of translocation and the requirements from the host cell for that event are not well understood. The(More)
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, ulcerations, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori secretes the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), a major pathogenicity factor. VacA has immunosuppressive effects, inhibiting interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by interference with the T cell receptor/IL-2 signaling pathway at the level of calcineurin, the(More)
Several receptors have been described for the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin VacA, which exerts different effects on epithelial cells and on immune cells. The crystal structure of the putative receptor-binding domain of VacA (p55) has now been solved. It consists of a parallel beta-helix with a C-terminal globular domain. A comparison between allelic(More)
Chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. To address the question, we have tested 44 different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. None required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions.(More)
The moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus carries a homologue of LuxS, a protein involved in the activated methyl cycle and the production of autoinducer-2, which mediates quorum sensing between certain species. luxS of H. halophilus is part of an operon that encodes an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, a cysteine synthase,(More)
Retroviruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus and murine leukaemia virus are believed to spread via sites of cell-cell contact designated virological synapses. Support for this model is based on in vitro evidence in which infected cells are observed to specifically establish long-lived cell-cell contact with(More)
Dendritic cells can capture and transfer retroviruses in vitro across synaptic cell-cell contacts to uninfected cells, a process called trans-infection. Whether trans-infection contributes to retroviral spread in vivo remains unknown. Here, we visualize how retroviruses disseminate in secondary lymphoid tissues of living mice. We demonstrate that murine(More)
The moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus can synthesize glycine betaine from choline. Oxidation of choline is induced by salinity and repressed by exogenous glycine betaine. The genes encoding the choline dehydrogenase (gbsB) and the glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (gbsA) were identified and shown to constitute an operon. Divergent(More)
Gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is associated with development of gastritis, ulcerations and gastric adenocarcinoma. Production and secretion of the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an essential Hp virulence factor. VacA is a multifunctional toxin, which exerts immunosuppressive effects on human T lymphocytes via inhibition of cell(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenic mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-induced duodenal mucosal injury are incompletely understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) on duodenal mucosal bicarbonate (HCO3-) secretion. METHODS Concentrated bacterial culture supernatants from an H. pylori(More)