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—Raman assistance in distributed sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis can significantly extend the measurement distance. In this paper, we have developed a 2 m resolution long-range Brillouin distributed sensor that reaches 100 km using first-order Raman assistance. The estimated uncertainty in temperature discrimination is 1.2 C, even(More)
—The real remoteness of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is considerably extended in this paper using seeded second-order Raman amplification and optical pulse coding. The presented analysis and the experimental results demonstrate that a proper optimization of both methods combined with a well-equalized(More)
Non-local effects have been traditionally identified as one of the most limiting factors of the performance of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers. These phenomena, directly linked with the energy gained/lost by the pump pulse, limit the probe power and ultimately the SNR of the system. Several solutions have been proposed, although none offers the(More)
We have developed a long-range Brillouin distributed sensor featuring 100 km measuring distance with 2 meter resolution. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a high-resolution setup reaches the barrier of 100 km measurement range. The key improvements with respect to previous configurations are explained.
Systematic errors induced by distortions in the pump pulse of conventional Brillouin distributed fiber sensors are thoroughly investigated. Experimental results, supported by a theoretical analysis, demonstrate that the two probe sidebands in standard Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers provide a non-zero net gain on the pump pulse, inducing severe(More)
Kerr effect accounts for the change in refractive index of a material with the light intensity and appears in all known optical materials. In this work we analyze Kerr effect in structured superluminal media (e.g some specific types of resonators). We show that Kerr effect in these structures can be cancelled or even reversed (in comparison with the Kerr(More)
We evaluate the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) determination error when using the Brillouin phase spectrum (BPS) instead of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) in BOTDA setups. We compare the error obtained in the BFS determination in both cases, both with theoretical arguments and experimental data. In comparison to the gain, for an equal SNR and linewidth,(More)
We evaluate the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) determination error when utilizing the Brillouin phase spectrum (BPS) instead of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) in BOTDA systems. Systems based on the BPS perform the determination of the BFS through a linear fit around the zero de-phase frequency region. An analytical expression of the error obtained in(More)
In this paper we combine the use of optical pulse coding and seeded second-order Raman amplification to extend the sensing distance of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors. Using 255-bit Simplex coding, the power levels of the Raman pumps and the Brillouin pump and probe signals were adjusted in order to extend the real physical sensing(More)
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