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Memantine (MEM) is used for improving the cognitive impairments of the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. However, it is still not clear whether nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is involved in the mechanisms of MEM. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of MEM treatment on the(More)
Insulin has been proposed to be a positive regulator of osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. In vivo mechanical loading is essential for maintaining skeletal integrity and bone mass. Since insulin and mechanical force activate similar signaling pathways in osteoblasts, it was hypothesized that insulin may affect mechanical stimulation in(More)
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on the condylar response during treatment with a functional appliance. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, normal (NG), diabetes (DG) and diabetes with insulin‑treatment (TG). Bite‑jumping appliances were fitted to the rats in the experimental groups. At 7, 14, 21 and 28(More)
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