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This research examines the life-cycle water and nutrients usage of microalgae-based biodiesel production. The influence of water types, operation with and without recycling, algal species, geographic distributions are analyzed. The results confirm the competitiveness of microalgae-based biofuels and highlight the necessity of recycling harvested water and(More)
MOTIVATION Our understanding of gene regulation is currently limited by our ability to collectively synthesize and catalogue transcriptional regulatory elements stored in scientific literature. Over the past decade, this task has become increasingly challenging as the accrual of biologically validated regulatory sequences has accelerated. To meet this(More)
schedules a double round-robin tournament to minimize the total distance traveled by competing teams. It involves issues of feasibility and optimality and is a challenge to constraint and integer programming. In this work, we divide the search space and use simulated annealing (SA) to search a timetable space and hill-climbing to explore a team assignment(More)
—Energy efficient asynchronous duty cycle MAC protocols are crucial to the success of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In asynchronous protocols, each node operates its active/sleep schedule independently and enjoys a very low duty cycle when there is no traffic. However, when a node has data to send, it has to keep active and wait until the receiver wakes(More)
A seven axis haptic device, called the Freedom-7, is described in relation to its application to surgical training. The generality of its concept makes it also relevant to most other haptic applications. The design rationale is driven by a long list of requirements since such a device is meant t o interact with the human hand: uniform response, balanced(More)