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This epidemiologic study estimated the prevalence of specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual English-speaking kindergarten children. From a stratified cluster sample in rural, urban, and suburban areas in the upper midwest, 7,218 children were screened. The language screening failure rate was 26.2%. Children who failed the screening and a similar(More)
PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glutamate receptor function at excitatory synapses. Recent studies demonstrating the rapid regulation of AMPA receptor function during synaptic plasticity have suggested that AMPA receptor interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins(More)
This study examined nonword repetition performance in a population-based sample of school-age children. A total of 581 second graders who were participating in a longitudinal, epidemiologic investigation of specific language impairment (SLI) were administered the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT) developed by Dollaghan & Campbell (1998). Performance was(More)
Many excitatory synapses are thought to be postsynaptically 'silent', possessing functional NMDA but lacking functional AMPA glutamate receptors. The acquisition of AMPA receptors at silent synapses may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. Here we characterize a possible morphological correlate of silent synapses in cultured(More)
The possibility that membrane fusion events in the postsynaptic cell may be required for the change in synaptic strength resulting from long-term potentiation (LTP) was examined. Introducing substances into the postsynaptic cell that block membrane fusion at a number of different steps reduced LTP. Introducing SNAP, a protein that promotes membrane fusion,(More)
Polarized delivery and incorporation of proteins and lipids to specific domains of the plasma membrane is fundamental to a wide range of biological processes such as neuronal synaptogenesis and epithelial cell polarization. The exocyst complex is specifically localized to sites of active exocytosis and plays essential roles in secretory vesicle targeting(More)
Following peripheral axotomy, long-lasting changes in the expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in primary sensory neurons are observed. These changes involve the downregulation of the excitatory peptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide and the upregulation of the inhibitory peptides neuropeptide tyrosine and galanin, resulting in(More)
TR3, an immediate-early response gene and an orphan member of the steroid-thyroid hormone-retinoid receptor superfamily of transcription factors, regulates apoptosis through an unknown mechanism. In response to apoptotic stimuli, TR3 translocates from the nucleus to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Mitochondrial targeting of TR3,(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills after a period of normal development in infant girls. The responsible gene, encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), was recently discovered. Here we explore the spectrum of phenotypes resulting from MECP2 mutations. Both nonsense (R168X and R255X) and(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) plays a key role in DNA base excision repair and cells lacking its activity are hypersensitive to DNA damage. Recently, we reported a SNP (rs3213245, -77T>C) in the XRCC1 gene 5' untranslated region (UTR) was significantly associated with the risk of developing esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Computer analysis(More)