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BACKGROUND The exact lymphatic drainage pattern of the breast hasn't been explained clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate the sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs) in the cancerous breast. Whether the type of SLCs influenced the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB was also assessed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Mimic SLNB was(More)
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in women, and it can often metastasize to the bone. The mechanism of BC bone metastasis remains unclear and requires in-depth investigation. In a previous study, we found the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) to be significantly more pronounced at metastatic bone sites than at orthotopic(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies suggested that the molecular subtypes were strongly associated with sentinel lymph node (SLN) status. The purpose of this study was to determine whether molecular subtype classification was associated with non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) metastasis in patients with a positive SLN. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Between(More)
Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) affects many effector molecules and regulates tumor lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HIF-1α in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) expression and its effect on lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in breast cancer.(More)
The molecular mechanisms that underpin invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) invasion and metastasis are incompletely understood. The oncogene, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers, where it stimulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), an important enzyme in the breakdown of the(More)
BACKGROUND The rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) associated with docetaxel-based regimens reported by previous studies are discordant. For navelbine-based chemotherapies, rates of CIA have seldom been reported. METHODS Of 170 premenopausal patients recruited between January 2003 and September 2008, 78 were treated with fluorouracil plus(More)
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is common in young breast cancer patients. The incidence of CIA associated with regimens involving epirubicin and taxane was not well known. Furthermore, previous studies suggested leucopenia and amenorrhea may reflect inter-individual variations in pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies provide an ambiguous picture of creatine kinase (CK) expression and activities in malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum CK level in breast cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS 823 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer were consecutively recruited as cases, and 823 age-match patients with(More)
Bromodomain-containing protein is involved in many essential cellular processes, such as chromosomes for cell cycle progression, cellular viability and embryonic stem cell regulation, which plays a significant role in cancers and lysine acetylation. However, there is no information available regarding the discovery for structurally novel existing BRD4(1)(More)