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Evolutionary algorithms(EAs) have been widely applied to solve stationary optimization problems. However, many real-world applications are actually dynamic. In order to study the performance of EAs in dynamic environments, one important task is to develop proper dynamic benchmark problems. Over the years, researchers have applied a number of dynamic test(More)
Load Forecasting plays a critical role in the management, scheduling and dispatching operations in power systems, and it concerns the prediction of energy demand in different time spans. In future electric grids, to achieve a greater control and flexibility than in actual electric grids, a reliable forecasting of load demand could help to avoid dispatch(More)
This paper investigates the Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (PCARP), which is often encountered in the waste collection application. PCARP is an extension of the well-known Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) from a single period to a multi-period horizon. PCARP is a hierarchical optimization problem which has a primary objective (minimizing the(More)
— Online service provision is becoming increasingly decentralized as system designers pursue the benefits gained from utilizing nodes at the periphery of the network. However , distributing control means relying on the cooperation of participating agents, and it is a significant challenge to design mechanisms that incentivise optimal global behavior in a(More)
The important issue for Designing architecture isthe evolution of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There is no systematic method to design a near-optimal architecture for a given application or task. The pattern classification methods are used to design the neural network architectures and efforts towards the automatic design of network topologies,(More)
Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such(More)
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