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BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an autoimmune chronic depigmentation disorder caused by melanocyte loss. Previous studies found that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction was involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and that gene polymorphisms in forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) - a master regulator of Treg development and function - were associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder resulting from selective destruction of melanocytes. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is vital to the regulation of melanogenesis and melanocyte proliferation and differentiation through modulating the expressions of melanogenesis-related genes. AHR mutations may negatively affect AHR proteins(More)
BACKGROUND T lymphocytes have been shown to cause the destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo pathogenesis. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB), as an effective therapeutic strategy in vitiligo, can lead to the formation of DNA photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in perilesional lymphocytes and thus induce skin immunosuppression. The(More)
K. Eckert, J. Mompart, X. X. Yi, J. Schliemann, D. Bruß, G. Birkl, and M. Lewenstein Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover, Germany Departament de Fı́sica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain 3 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China(More)
Beyond the quantum Markov approximation and the weak coupling limit, we present a general theory to calculate the geometric phase for open systems with and without conserved energy. As an example, the geometric phase for a two-level system coupling both dephasingly and dissipatively to its environment is calculated. Comparison with the results from quantum(More)
We propose a linear-optics-based scheme for local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs distributed among five parties into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states using local operations and classical communication. The proposed setup involves simple linear optical elements and non-photon-number-resolving detectors that(More)
Tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyr-Tyrp1) complex plays a critical role in the synthesis of melanin intermediates, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributes to the development of vitiligo. Based on our previous observation that rs11614913 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miR-196a-2 could affect the(More)
Charge separation occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine. Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by(More)