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High cell density cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production was carried out in batch and fed-batch modes in 3.7-L bioreactors with stepwise increased light intensity control mode. A high cell density of 2.65 g L−1 (batch culture) or 2.74 g L−1 (fed-batch culture) was obtained, and total astaxanthin production in the fed-batch culture(More)
Neurotransmitter regulation of bone metabolism has been a subject of increasing interest and investigation. We reported previously that osteoblastic cells express a functional serotonin (5-HT) signal transduction system, with mechanisms for responding to and regulating uptake of 5-HT. The clonal murine osteocytic cell line, MLO-Y4, demonstrates expression(More)
Neurotransmitter regulation of bone metabolism has been the subject of increasing interest and investigation. Because serotonin (5-HT) plays a role as a regulator of craniofacial morphogenesis, we investigated the expression and function of 5-HT receptors and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) in bone. Primary cultures of rat osteoblasts (rOB) and a variety of(More)
Non-aromatizable androgens have significant beneficial effects on skeletal homeostasis independently of conversion to estradiol, but the effects of androgens on bone cell metabolism and cell proliferation are still poorly understood. Using an osteoblastic model with enhanced androgen responsiveness, MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with androgen receptor(More)
Phycocyanin production by high cell density cultivation of Spirulina platensis in batch and fed-batch modes in 3.7-L bioreactors with a programmed stepwise increase in light intensity program was investigated. The results showed that the cell density in fed-batch culture (10.2 g L−1) was 4.29-fold that in batch culture (2.38 g L−1), and the total(More)
Significant levels of estrogen and androgens circulate in men and women, and both play an important role in bone metabolism. While it is well established that either estrogen or androgen replacement therapy is effective at ameliorating bone loss associated with hypogonadism, recent evidence nevertheless suggests that estrogen and androgens have distinct(More)
Production of lutein by the green microalga Chlorella protothecoides grown heterotrophically in a fermentor using glucose as the carbon source and urea as the nitrogen source was investigated. An unstructured kinetic model was proposed to describe the microalgal culture system including cell growth, lutein formation, as well as glucose and nitrogen(More)
Significant levels of estrogen and androgens circulate in men and women, and both play an important role in bone metabolism. While it is well established that either estrogen or androgen replacement therapy is effective at ameliorating bone loss associated with hypogonadism, recent evidence nevertheless suggests that estrogen and androgens have distinct(More)
BACKGROUND Although visceral hypersensitivity is a major pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system. In this study, we investigated whether the TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear(More)
This paper investigated high cell density cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production in 3.7-L bioreactors. A biomass concentration of 2.74 g L−1and an astaxanthin yield of 64.4 mg L−1 were obtained. Based on the experimental results, a new and simple dynamic model is proposed, differing from Monod kinetics, to describe cell growth,(More)