Learn More
A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
The development of genome sequencing and DNA microarray analysis of gene expression gives rise to the demand for data-mining tools. BioProspector, a C program using a Gibbs sampling strategy, examines the upstream region of genes in the same gene expression pattern group and looks for regulatory sequence motifs. BioProspector uses zero to third-order Markov(More)
Bcl-2 is an integral membrane protein located mainly on the outer membrane of mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli. Cytosolic cytochrome c is necessary for the initiation of the apoptotic program, suggesting a possible connection between Bcl-2 and cytochrome c, which is normally(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the utility of MRI hippocampal and entorhinal cortex atrophy in predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Baseline brain MRI was performed in 139 patients with MCI, broadly defined, and 63 healthy controls followed for an average of 5 years (range 1 to 9 years). RESULTS(More)
Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The diversities among the models for the sources and sinks, 5 burdens,(More)
We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O 3 , NO 2 , and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite(More)
Two types of Usher syndrome, a blindness-deafness disorder, result from mutations in the myosin VIIa gene. As for most other unconventional myosins, little is known about the function or functions of myosin VIIa. Here, we studied the photoreceptor cells of mice with mutant myosin VIIa by electron immunomicroscopy and microscopic autoradiography. We found(More)
Targeted gene disruption studies in the mouse have demonstrated crucial roles for the Brn3 POU domain transcription factor genes, Brn3a, Brn3b, Brn3c (now called Pou4f1, Pou4f2, Pou4f3, respectively) in sensorineural development and survival. During mouse retinogenesis, the Brn3b gene is expressed in a large set of postmitotic ganglion cell precursors and(More)
We analyze the theoretical basis of three different methods to validate and intercompare satellite measurements of atmospheric composition, and apply them to tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The first method (in situ method) uses in situ vertical profiles for absolute(More)