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Intrinsic disorder refers to segments or to whole proteins that fail to self-fold into fixed 3D structure, with such disorder sometimes existing in the native state. Here we report data on the relationships among intrinsic disorder, sequence complexity as measured by Shannon's entropy, and amino acid composition. Intrinsic disorder identified in protein(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the(More)
We examined the modulation of persistent inward currents (PICs) by serotonin (5-HT) in spinal motoneurons of normal and chronic spinal rats. PICs are composed of both a TTX-sensitive persistent sodium current (Na PIC) and a nimodipine-sensitive persistent calcium current (Ca PIC), and we focused on quantifying the Na PIC (and its action on the total PIC),(More)
Histamine is a multifunctional hormone that regulates smooth muscle contraction in the airways, acid secretion in the gut, and neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system through three well characterized receptor subtypes, H(1), H(2), H(3), respectively. As part of a directed effort to discover novel G-protein-coupled receptors through homology(More)
Over the months following sacral spinal cord transection in adult rats, a pronounced spasticity syndrome emerges in the affected tail musculature, where long-lasting muscle spasms can be evoked by low-threshold afferent stimulation (termed long-lasting reflex). To develop an in vitro preparation to examine the neuronal mechanisms underlying spasticity, we(More)
In the months after spinal cord injury, motoneurons develop large voltage-dependent persistent inward currents (PICs) that cause sustained reflexes and associated muscle spasms. These muscle spasms are triggered by any excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that is long enough to activate the PICs, which take > 100 ms to activate. The PICs are composed of(More)
Months after sacral spinal transection in rats (chronic spinal rats), motoneurons below the injury exhibit large, low-threshold persistent inward currents (PICs), composed of persistent sodium currents (Na PICs) and persistent calcium currents (Ca PICs). Here, we studied whether motoneurons of normal adult rats also exhibited Na and Ca PICs when the spinal(More)
The human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene is localized to chromosome 5p15.3 by in situ hybridization and PCR amplification of rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA. Analysis of a 40-bp repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the message revealed variable numbers of the repeat ranging from 3 to 11 copies. These results will aid in the investigation of a role for(More)
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used reporter in gene expression and protein localization studies. GFP is a stable protein; this property allows its accumulation and easy detection in cells. However, this stability also limits its application in studies that require rapid reporter turnover. We created a destabilized GFP for use in such(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using(More)