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Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in(More)
The acclimation responses of walnut leaf photosynthesis to the irradiance microclimate were investigated by characterizing the photosynthetic properties of the leaves sampled on young trees (Juglans nigraxregia) grown in simulated sun and shade environments, and within a mature walnut tree crown (Juglans regia) in the field. In the young trees, the CO(2)(More)
Answering the requirement of the Model-Driven Architecture approach, as well as the general needs of engineering process definition, requires to precisely define the content and structure of the different models to be produced at project development time. For each model, the following questions must have an answer: What are its content and its objectives?(More)
In ecology, biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research has seen a shift in perspective from taxonomy to function in the last two decades, with successful application of trait-based approaches. This shift offers opportunities for a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem processes and services. In(More)
Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits(More)
In order to predict which ecosystem functions are most at risk from biodiversity loss, meta-analyses have generalised results from biodiversity experiments over different sites and ecosystem types. In contrast, comparing the strength of biodiversity effects across a large number of ecosystem processes measured in a single experiment permits more direct(More)
Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
Many studies have assessed the responses of soil microbial functional groups to increases in atmospheric CO2 or N deposition alone and more rarely in combination. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and N on the (de)coupling between different microbial functional groups (e.g., different groups of nitrifiers) have been barely studied, despite potential(More)
Parametric amplification is an interesting way of artificially increasing a MEMS Quality factor and could be helpful in many kinds of applications. This paper presents a theoretical study of this principle, based on Matlab/Simulink® simulations, and proposes design guidelines for parametric structures. A new device designed with this approach is presented(More)